Applied Evidence

Dehydration in terminal illness: Which path forward?

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A multifactorial, patient-based decision

Years ago, before the advent of hospitalizing people with terminal illnesses, dying at home amongst loved ones was believed to be peaceful. Nevertheless, questions arise about the practical vs ethical approach to caring for patients with terminal illness.2 Sometimes it is difficult to find a balance between potential health care benefits and the burdens induced by medical, legal, moral, and/or social pressures. Our medical communities and the general population uphold preserving dignity at the end of life, which is supported by organizations such as Compassion & Choices (a nonprofit group that seeks to improve and expand options for end of life care; https://www.compassionandchoices.org).

Allowing for voluntary, patient-determined dehydration in those with terminal illness can offer greater comfort than maintaining the physiologic degrees of fluid balance. There are 3 key considerations to bear in mind:

  • Hydration is usually a standard part of quality medical care.1
  • Selectively allowing dehydration in patients who are dying can facilitate comfort.1-5
  • Dehydration may be a deliberate strategy to hasten death.6

When is dehydration appropriate?

Hydration is not favored whenever doing so may increase discomfort and prolong pain without meaningful life.3 In people with terminal illness, hydration may reduce quality of life.7

The data support dehydration in certain patients. A randomized controlled trial involving 129 patients receiving hospice care compared parenteral hydration with placebo, documenting that rehydration did not improve symptoms or quality of life; there was no significant difference between patients who were hydrated and those who were dehydrated.7 In fact, dehydration may even yield greater patient comfort.8

Case reports, retrospective chart reviews, and testimonials from health care professionals have reported that being less hydrated can diminish nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, ascites, edema, and urinary or bowel incontinence, with less skin breakdown.8 Hydration, on the other hand, may exacerbate dyspnea, coughing, and choking, increasing the need for suctioning.

Continue to: A component of palliative care

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