Because of the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes, bariatric surgery has become very popular. In the United States alone, there were an estimated 228,000 weight loss surgical procedures performed in 2017.1
But I must confess that for many years, I was skeptical about the value of surgery to treat obesity. Yes, everyone who had a bariatric procedure lost weight, but did the long-term benefits really outweigh the harms? I wondered if most people gradually gained back the weight they lost. And the harms can be significant, including dumping syndrome, hypoglycemia, and malabsorption—in addition to the potential for surgical complications and repeat surgery. And, I must confess that my views were likely affected by the death of a friend from complications of gastric bypass 25 years ago.
My skepticism, however, has changed to cautious optimism for carefully selected patients. I say this because we now have long-term follow-up studies demonstrating the value of bariatric procedures—especially for people with type 2 diabetes.
Most studies have been cohort studies that compare results to similar patients with obesity who did not have surgery, and the outcomes have been consistently better in patients who underwent surgery. Two recent meta-analyses summarized these results; one for all patients with obesity and the other for patients with type 2 diabetes.
Continue to: The first meta-analysis