Patients at very high risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes derive substantial benefit from proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition, according to results of two analyses from the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial.
In one prespecified analysis, the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab was linked to improved cardiovascular outcomes in patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), while in the other, researchers wrote that alirocumab showed a “large absolute benefit” in patients with polyvascular disease, which they defined as the presence of concomitant peripheral artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, or both.
These reports on alirocumab outcomes in patients withand appear in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
Prior CABG and polyvascular disease were both associated with markedly elevated risks of major adverse coronary events (MACE) and death, investigators wrote in the reports.
The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial included 18,924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and high atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin treatment. The primary outcome was MACE, comprising a composite of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal MI, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. During a median 2.8 years of follow-up, this outcome occurred in 9.5% of the overall population randomized to alirocumab and 11.1% of those on placebo, for a statistically significant and clinically meaningful 15% relative risk reduction.
In the trial population, 1,405 patients had polyvascular disease in at least two beds, including a coronary artery, plus either peripheral artery or cerebrovascular, while 149 had polyvascular disease in all three beds. The remainder, including 17,370 patients, were classified as having monovascular disease.
The incidences of MACE for placebo-treated patients with monovascular disease, two-bed polyvascular disease, and three-bed polyvascular disease were 10.0%, 22.2%, and 39.7%, respectively. Alirocumab treatment resulted in an absolute risk reduction for MACE of 1.4%, 1.9%, and 13.0%, for those respective groups (P = .0006).
Similarly, the incidence of the secondary endpoint of death for placebo-treated patients was 3.5%, 10.0%, and 21.8%, and the ARR with alirocumab was 0.4%, 1.3%, and 16.2% (P = .002), according to their reported data.
These results suggest that patients with polyvascular disease are an “easily identifiable subgroup” of ACS patients with a high absolute risk of MACE and death, according to the investigators, led by, of Leiden (the Netherlands) University Medical Center.
“The large absolute benefit of PCSK9 inhibition with alirocumab, when added to high-intensity statin therapy, is a potential benefit for this group of patients,” Dr. Jukema and coauthors wrote.
Of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES patients, 1,025 had an index CABG after ACS, 1,003 had CABG before ACS, and the remaining 16,896 had no such procedure.
Hazard ratios for both MACE and death in all CABG categories were consistent with the overall results of ODYSSEY OUTCOMES, the investigators wrote. Specifically, alirocumab reduced MACE and death in the overall study, with HRs of 0.85 for both endpoints.
The ARRs in MACE with alirocumab were 1.3% for no CABG, 0.9% for index CABG, and 6.4% for prior CABG (P = .0007), while ARRs in death with the treatment were 0.4%, 0.5%, and 3.6% (P = .03) for those categories, respectively. In this analysis, the investigators calculated the number needed to treat to prevent one primary or secondary endpoint over the median 2.8 years of follow-up. The numbers needed to treat were 16 for prior CABG, 111 for index, and 77 for no prior CABG.
“Although the relative benefit of alirocumab versus placebo is consistent regardless of prior CABG status, those with prior CABG achieve substantially greater absolute risk reduction and consequently lower number needed to treat,” wrote the authors of the analysis, led by, of St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto.
Funding for the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial and its subanalyses was provided by Sanofi and Regeneron. Authors of the analyses reported disclosures related to Sanofi, Regeneron, Amgen, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Pfizer, and others.
SOURCES: Goodman SG et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Aug 26. ; Jukema JW et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Aug 26. .