IgA vasculitis, also called Henoch-Schönlein purpura, increases risks for hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to a retrospective study of more than 13,000 patients with IgAV.
In patients with adult-onset IgA vasculitis (IgAV), mortality risk is also increased, reported first author Alexander Tracy and his colleagues at the University of Birmingham (England).
“Long-term health outcomes of adult-onset IgAV are not well characterized,” the investigators wrote in. “Most evidence regarding complications of IgAV in adults derives from case reports and case series; there is need for controlled epidemiological studies to address this question.”
The retrospective study compared 2,828 patients with adult-onset IgAV and 10,405 patients with childhood-onset IgAV against sex- and age-matched controls. Patients diagnosed at age 16 years or older were classified as having adult-onset disease. The investigators drew their data from The Health Improvement Network database, which includes 3.6 million active patients from more than 675 general practices in the United Kingdom. Patients in the present study were diagnosed with IgAV between 2005 and 2016. After diagnosis, participant follow-up continued until any of the following occurred: outcome event, patient left practice, death, the practice stopped contributing data, or the study ended. Primary outcomes for adult-onset patients were venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic heart disease, hypertension, stage 3-5 CKD, stroke/transient ischemic attack, and all-cause mortality. Primary outcomes for patients with childhood-onset disease were limited to CKD, hypertension, and VTE.
The incidence of childhood-onset IgAV was 27.22 per 100,000 person-years, whereas adult-onset disease was much less common at 2.20 per 100,000 person-years. Mean age at onset of childhood IgAV was 6.68 years. The adult-onset group had a mean age at diagnosis of 38.1 years.
Compared with controls, all patients with IgAV, regardless of onset age, had increased risks of hypertension (adult-onset adjusted hazard ratio, 1.42; P less than .001; childhood-onset aHR, 1.52; P less than .001) and CKD (adult-onset aHR, 1.54; P less than .001; childhood-onset aHR, 1.89; P = .01). Patients with adult-onset IgAV showed increased risk of death, compared with controls (aHR, 1.27; P = .006). No associations were found between IgAV and stroke/transient ischemic attack, VTE, or ischemic heart disease.
“These findings emphasize the importance of blood pressure and renal function monitoring in patients with IgAV,” the investigators concluded. “Our data also suggest that IgAV should not be considered a ‘single-hit’ disease, but that clinicians should monitor for long-term sequelae. Further research is required to clarify the cause of hypertension in patients with IgAV, and to investigate whether such patients suffer from additional long-term sequelae than that are currently unrecognized.”
The investigators reported no funding sources or conflicts or interest.
SOURCE: Tracy A et al. Ann Rheum Dis. 2018 Nov 28.