AMSTERDAM – Glucocorticosteroids remain an important therapeutic option for many patients with rheumatic and nonrheumatic disease, but careful assessment of their relative benefits and risks needs to be considered when prescribing, according to an expert summary of currently available European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations.
From rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) to vasculitis, myositis, and even gout, steroids are widely used in the rheumatic diseases, said, during a final plenary session at the European Congress of Rheumatology.
“These are strong-acting, rapidly acting, efficacious drugs,” observed Dr. Buttgereit, who is a professor in the department of rheumatology at Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin. While effective at reducing inflammation and providing immunosuppression, they are, of course, not without their well-known risks. Some of the well-documented risks he pointed out were the development of osteoporosis, myopathy, and edema; the disruption of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism; and the risk of developing glaucoma and cataracts.
“This leads to the question on how to optimize the use of these drugs,” Dr. Buttgereit said. “EULAR is constantly working to improve its guidelines,” and updating these in line with the available evidence, he added. “The bottom line is always give as much as necessary but as little as possible.”
Over the past few years, EULAR’s Glucocorticoid Task Force has been reviewing and updating recommendations on the use of these drugs and it has published several important documents clarifying their use in RA and in PMR. The task force has also published a viewpoint article on the long-term use of steroids, defining the conditions where an “acceptably low level of harm” might exist to enable their continued use. There have also been separate recommendations, published in 2010, on how to monitor these drugs (
Clarifying the role of steroids in rheumatoid arthritis
The latest (2016) EULAR recommendations on the use of glucocorticosteroids were published last year () and included an important adjustment on when they should be initially used in RA, Dr. Buttgereit explained. Previous recommendations had said that steroids could be combined with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) but had suggested that they be used at a low dose. Now the wording has changed to focus on short-term use rather than dosing.
“Glucocorticoids can be given initially at different dosages, and using different routes of administration,” he said in a video interview at the EULAR Congress. The practice on what dose to give varies from country to country, he noted, so the recommendations are now being less prescriptive.
“We have made it clear that glucocorticoids should really be used only when initiating conventional synthetic DMARDs, but not necessarily if you switch to biologics or targeted synthetics because usually the onset of their actions is pretty fast,” Dr. Buttgereit said.
One thing that hasn’t changed is that steroid should be tapered down as “rapidly as clinically feasible” until, ideally, their full withdrawal. Although there are cases when that might not be possible, and their long-term use might be warranted. This is when you get into discussion about the benefit-to-risk ratio, he said.