Most patients with CAP are treated empirically with antibiotics, with therapy selection based on the site of care, likely pathogen, and antimicrobial resistance issues. Those treated as outpatients usually respond well to empiric antibiotic treatment, and a causative pathogen is not usually sought. Patients who are hospitalized for treatment usually receive empiric antibiotic on admission, and antimicrobial therapy is adjusted accordingly once the etiology has been determined by microbiologic or serologic means. At this time, the use of corticosteroid as an adjunctive treatment for CAP is still controversial, so not all patients with CAP should routinely receive corticosteroids. Because vaccination (PPSV23, PCV13, and influenza vaccine) remains the most effective tool in preventing the development of CAP, clinicians should strive for 100% vaccination rates in persons without contraindications.