As part of my psychiatry residency training, I had the privilege to work with and learn from an aerospace psychiatrist. Aerospace medicine is a branch of preventive and occupational medicine in which aviators (pilots, aircrew, or astronauts) are subject to evaluation/treatment. The goal is to assess physical and mental health factors to mitigate risks, protect public safety, and ensure the aviators’ well-being.1,2 Aerospace psychiatry is a highly specialized area in which practitioners are trained to perform specific evaluations. In this article, I review those evaluations for those looking to gain insight into the field.
Aviation medical examination
Under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires aviators to be evaluated for medical certification by undergoing an aviation medical exam.2 In order to be deemed “fit for duty,” aviators must meet strict physical and mental health standards set by the FAA. The extent of these standards varies by the class of licensure (Table 13). Aviation medical exams are performed by any physician who has been designated by the FAA and completed the appropriate FAA aviation medical examiner (AME) training. Aviators who meet the medical standards for their licensure class are recommended for medical certification. If the AME brings up further questions due to the limits of the examination and/or a lack of medical records, the certification will likely be deferred pending further evaluation by an FAA-approved medical specialist and/or the receipt of additional medical records. Questions about a possible psychiatric diagnosis/history or substance use disorder will lead to referral to a psychiatrist familiar with aviation standards for further evaluation.
Special issuances and Conditions AMEs Can Issue
There are 15 disqualifying conditions for medical certification (Table 13). However, a special issuance of a medical certification may be granted if the aviator shows to the satisfaction of the aviation medical examiner that the duties of the licensure class can be performed without endangering the public safety and that the condition is deemed stable. This may be shown through additional medical evaluations/tests and/or records.
There are certain medical conditions for which an AME can issue a medical certificate without further review from other specialists; thus, an AME can review and follow the Conditions AMEs Can Issue (CACI) worksheet to recommend medical certification (Table 24). The CACI guidelines and worksheets are updated by the FAA regularly to ensure aviators’ health and minimize public risk.
Psychiatric & Psychological Evaluation
Aviators may be referred for Psychiatric and Psychological Evaluation (P&P) if an AME discovers additional concerns about psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders. These cases are not clear-cut. An example would be an aviator who was receiving a psychotropic medication in the past and reported past heavy alcohol use. The P&P includes a thorough psychiatric evaluation by an aerospace psychiatrist and extensive psychological testing by an aerospace psychologist. These clinicians also review collateral information and past medical/AME records. Aviators may be recommended for medical certification with special issuance or may be denied medical certification as a result of these examinations.
Human Intervention Motivation Study program
The Human Intervention Motivation Study (HIMS) program was established to provide an avenue whereby commercial pilots with active substance use disorders can be identified, treated, and successfully returned to active flight status.5 The goal of the HIMS program is to save lives and careers while enhancing flight safety. Physicians trained in HIMS evaluations follow the multifactorial addiction disease model. This evaluation is used to identify active substance use and initiate treatment, and to maintain sobriety and monitor aftercare adherence.