Conference Coverage

PANS may be more prevalent than thought


 

FROM CP/AACP PSYCHIATRY UPDATE

Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS), a rare acute onset of psychiatric symptoms, might be more common than initially thought, according to Kiki D. Chang, MD.

Dr. Kiki Chang of Stanford University, California

Dr. Kiki Chang

PANS is characterized by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center as a “sudden onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or severe eating restrictions, along with at least two other cognitive, behavioral, or neurological symptoms.” These symptoms can include anxiety, depression, oppositional behavior, difficulty concentrating, abnormalities in motor and sensory skills, and other somatic symptoms. The condition develops as a result of an infection that causes an autoimmune or inflammatory response in the brain, and patients tend to respond well to treatment from antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medication, and immunomodulatory therapy.

Both PANS and a subtype condition, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus infections (PANDAS), are underrecognized, Dr. Chang said in a virtual meeting presented by Current Psychiatry and the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists. It is often misdiagnosed as Tourette syndrome or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) because tics are present in about half of cases, he said, but more severe associated symptoms, such as psychosis, can be misdiagnosed as psychotic disorders or mood disorders. Currently, neither PANS nor PANDAS are officially recognized by the American Academy of Pediatrics or the DSM-5.

“We’re hoping that it is soon because it clearly exists,” Dr. Chang said at the meeting, presented by Global Academy for Medical Education. “If you’ve ever treated a child with PANS or PANDAS and you have seen antibiotics totally reverse OCD and tic-like behavior, if you’ve seen prednisone actually treat symptoms of mania or even psychosis and actually make those things better rather than worse, it’s really eye-opening and it makes a believer out of you.”

Anxiety is the most common psychiatric symptom in youth, and anxiety disorders are also common, said Dr. Chang. According to the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement, 2001-2004, 31.9% adolescents overall reported an anxiety disorder, and 8.3% said their anxiety disorder caused severe impairment. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the level of anxiety for children and adolescents, which can lead to other disorders, such as separation anxiety disorder, panic disorder, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, OCD, or posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatrists should be suspicious of any sudden onset of symptoms that overlap with PANS, said Dr. Chang, who is now in private practice in Palo Alto, Calif.

“Anxiety disorders are incredibly common. Remember that you’ve got to carefully screen for other anxiety disorders, because they’re highly comorbid,” Dr. Chang said. “You’ve got to do a full workup. If there are other things going on, you’ve got to think PANS. If it’s acute onset, you’ve really got to think [PANS], and you should do that workup or refer to someone who does.”

The prevalence of PANS and PANDAS is not known, but it may be more common than psychiatrists realize, Dr. Chang said. “I’ve been doing this for about 10 years now in the PANS and PANDAS field, and it’s very clear to me that this is something that is prevalent,” he said.

Together with Jennifer Frankovich, MD, Dr. Chang founded a clinic at the Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford, and also helped to develop treatment guidelines for youth with PANS. At the clinic, patients are approximately 7.7 years old when developing the first symptoms, and are 10.7 years old when presenting for treatment. Most patients at the clinic are male (78%), and 40% are acute onset cases. Nearly all patients have symptoms of anxiety (92%), mood disorder (88%), OCD (86%), sensory/motor abnormalities (88%), irritability/aggression (82%), somatic symptoms, deterioration in school (76%), and behavioral regression (59%). More than one-third present with suicidal ideation (38%) and violence to themselves (29%), others (38%), or objects. About one-fourth have symptoms of psychosis (24%).

“These can be really sick kids,” Dr. Chang said. “We’re talking about kids yelling, screaming, having anxiety attacks, dropping on the floor, doing rituals constantly, not functioning, not able to eat because they’re afraid of things, not able to take care of their body or daily living. These were sometimes highly functional people beforehand, sometimes they weren’t, but it was still an acute change.”

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