The effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives, including the pill and mini-pill, may be compromised by sugammadex, a drug widely used in anesthesia for reversing neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium or vecuronium.
Yet women are not routinely informed that the drug may make their contraception less effective, delegates at Euroanaesthesia, the annual meeting of the European Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Milan were told.
New research presented at the meeting supports the authors’ experience that “robust methods for identifying at-risk patients and informing them of the associated risk of contraceptive failures is not common practice across anesthetic departments within the United Kingdom, and likely further afield.”
This is according to a survey of almost 150 anesthetic professionals, including consultants, junior doctors, and physician assistants, working at University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.
Dr. Neha Passi, Dr. Matt Oliver, and colleagues at the trust’s department of anesthesiology sent out a seven-question survey to their 150 colleagues and received 82 responses, 94% of which claimed awareness of the risk of contraceptive failure with sugammadex. However, 70% of the respondents admitted that they do not routinely discuss this with patients who have received the drug.
Risk with all forms of hormonal contraceptive
Yet current guidance is to inform women of child-bearing age that they have received the drug and, because of increased risk of contraceptive failure, advise those taking oral hormonal contraceptives to follow the missed pill advice in the leaflet that comes with their contraceptives. It also counsels that clinicians should advise women using other types of hormonal contraceptive to use an additional nonhormonal means of contraception for 7 days.
The study authors also carried out a retrospective audit of sugammadex use in the trust and reported that during the 6 weeks covered by the audit, 234 patients were administered sugammadex of whom 65 (28%) were women of childbearing age. Of these, 17 had a medical history that meant they weren’t at risk of pregnancy, but the other 48 should have received advice on the risks of contraceptive failure – however there was no record in the medical notes of such advice having been given for any of the at-risk 48 women.
While sugammadex is the only anesthetic drug known to have this effect, it is recognized to interact with progesterone and so may reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives, including the progesterone-only pill, combined pill, vaginal rings, implants, and intrauterine devices.
Dr. Passi said: “It is concerning that we are so seldom informing patients of the risk of contraceptive failure following sugammadex use.
“Use of sugammadex is expected to rise as it becomes cheaper in the future, and ensuring that women receiving this medicine are aware it may increase their risk of unwanted pregnancy must be a priority.”
She added: “It is important to note, however, that most patients receiving an anesthetic do not need a muscle relaxant and that sugammadex is one of several drugs available to reverse muscle relaxation.”
Dr. Oliver said: “We only studied one hospital trust but we expect the results to be similar in elsewhere in the U.K.”
In response to their findings, the study’s authors have created patient information leaflets and letters and programmed the trust’s electronic patient record system to identify “at-risk” patients and deliver electronic prompts to the anesthetists caring for them in the perioperative period.
A version of this article first appeared on Medscape UK.