Despite a 2006 recommendation by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommending universal screening for HIV, less than half of U.S. adults have ever been tested for the disease, a new study found.
“HIV screening is a critical entry point to a range of HIV prevention and treatment options. For persons at ongoing risk for HIV infection exposure, annual screening also offers the opportunity to discuss options to reduce risk, including HIV preexposure prophylaxis,” Marc A. Pitasi, MPHand investigators from the CDC wrote in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
The CDC investigators analyzed data collected from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2016-2017 to assess the percentage of adults screened for HIV ever and in the past year across the entirety of the United States, in 50 local jurisdictions where the majority of new U.S. HIV cases occur, and in seven states with a disproportionately high rate of HIV in rural populations.
The rate of ever testing was 38.9% across the entire country, 46.9% in the 50 local jurisdictions, and 35.5% in the seven states. The percentage of adults who had undergone HIV screening in the past year was significantly smaller at 10.1% across the entire country, 14.5% in the 50 local jurisdictions, and 9.3% in the seven states. This improved to 29.2%, 34.3%, and 26.2%, respectively, in adults who were tested in the past year who were also at risk for the disease.
The rate of ever testing varied widely among the 50 jurisdictions, ranging from 36.5% in Maricopa County, Ariz., to 70.7% in Washington, D.C. However, in addition to D.C., only Baltimore, Bronx County (N.Y.), and New York County reached or exceeded 60% coverage. Bronx County also had the highest rate of HIV screening in the past year at 31.3%, while Alameda County, Calif., had the lowest rate at 8.1%.
Of the seven states (Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and South Carolina), Mississippi had the highest overall ever-testing rate at 40.2%, and Oklahoma had the lowest at 29.7%. People living in rural areas in those states were less likely to have ever been tested (32.1%) than those living in urban areas (37.2%). The difference between rural and urban areas increased for people at risk for HIV who had been screened in the past year, with 18.4% and 29.0%, respectively, reporting undergoing screening.
“These data provide a baseline from which to measure changes in screening in these jurisdictions and other parts of the United States over time. To achieve national goals and end the HIV epidemic in the United States, innovative and novel screening approaches might be needed to reach segments of the population that have never been tested for HIV,” the investigators concluded.
The investigators reported no conflicts of interest.
SOURCE: Pitasi MA et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68:561-7.