A study published in the British Medical Journal found that women who practiced five healthy habits had children who when they reached adolescence were 75% less likely to be overweight, compared with women who practiced none of the those healthy habits.
The healthy habits were maintaining a healthy weight, eating a nutritious diet, exercising regularly, not smoking, and consuming no more than a moderate amount of alcohol (). I suspect you aren’t surprised by the core finding of this study of 16,945 female nurses and their 24,289 children. You’ve seen it scores of times. Mothers who lead unhealthy lifestyles seem to have children who are more likely to be obese. Now you have some numbers to support your decades of anecdotal observations. But the question is, what are we supposed to do with this new data? When and with whom should we share this unfortunate truth?
Evidence from previous studies makes it clear that by the time a child enters grade school the die is cast. Baby fat is neither cute nor temporary. This means that our target audience must be mothers-to-be and women whose children are infants and toddlers. On the other hand, telling the mother of an overweight teenager that her own unhealthy habits have probably contributed to her child’s weight problem is cruel and a waste of time. The mother already may have suspected her culpability. She also may feel that it is too late to do anything about it. While there have been some studies looking for an association between paternal body mass index and offspring BMI, I was unable to find any addressing paternal lifestyle and adolescent obesity.
This new study doesn’t address the unusual situation in which a mother of a teenager sheds all five of her unhealthy habits. I guess there may be examples in which a mother’s positive lifestyle change has helped reverse her adolescent child’s path to obesity. But I suspect these cases are rare.
So on one handbut on the other we must be careful to avoid playing the blame game and giving other mothers a one-way ticket on the guilt train. This is just one more example of the tightrope that we have been walking for generations. Every day in our offices we see children whose health is endangered by their parents’ behaviors and lifestyles. In cases in which the parental behavior is creating a serious short-term risk, such as failing to use an appropriate motor vehicle safety restraint system, we have no qualms about speaking out. We aren’t afraid to do a little shaming in hopes of sparing a family a serious guilt trip. When the threat to the child is more abstract and less dramatic – such as vaccine refusal – shaming and education don’t seem to be effective in changing parental behavior.
Obesity presents its own collection of complexities. It is like a car wreck seen in slow motion as the plots on the growth chart accumulate pound by pound. Unfortunately, parents often are among the last to notice or accept the reality. This new study doesn’t tell us whether we can make a difference. But it does suggest that when we first see the warning signs on the growth chart that we should engage the parents in a discussion of their lifestyle and its possible association with the child’s weight gain. The challenge, of course, is how one can cast the discussion without sounding judgmental.
Dr. Wilkoff practiced primary care pediatrics in Brunswick, Maine for nearly 40 years. He has authored several books on behavioral pediatrics, including “How to Say No to Your Toddler.” Email him at.