One-quarter of patients who present at the ED with a, according to the findings of a large study using a national insurance claims database.
, of the Center for Emergency Care Policy and Research at the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and his coauthors analyzed private insurance claims for 30,832 opioid-naive patients who were treated in the emergency department for ankle sprains.
The researchers looked at the initial opioid prescription intensity and duration of subsequent opioid use. The study, published online in, also found a wide variation in prescribing by hospital and geographic region, and an association between higher-potency opioid prescriptions (hydrocodone and oxycodone) and likelihood of extended or prolonged opioid use.
Overall, 25.1% of patients received an opioid prescription, the median tablet quantity was 15 tablets, and median days of opioids supplied was 3 days. Only 5% of patients were prescribed more than 30 tablets, which suggested that the majority of prescriptions written were in agreement with guidelines, the authors wrote.
They noted that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the first-line treatment for ankle sprains, rather than opioids, and are as effective for pain reduction.
Among patients prescribed the equivalent of more than 30 tabs of oxycodone 5 mg, 4.9% of them showed prolonged opioid use – defined as filling four or more subsequent opioid prescriptions in the 30-180 days after the index visit – compared with 1.1% of patients who received fewer than 10 tabs, and 0.5% of those who did not fill an opioid prescription. This represented a nearly fivefold increased probability of transition to prolonged use. For every 26 patients exposed to the higher intensity prescription, 1 would go on to prolonged opioid use.
“We confirmed that the majority of subsequent prescriptions were unlikely to be related to the initial ankle sprain or chronic ankle pain,” the researchers wrote. “This suggests that association between larger prescriptions and increased likelihood of prolonged use could be due to other factors such as patients requesting opioids as default pain control, or the development of dependence or misuse.”
The most commonly prescribed opioid was hydrocodone (64.9%), followed by tramadol (16.2%), oxycodone (14.4%), and codeine (5.5%). The analysis found that patients prescribed higher-potency drugs – namely hydrocodone and oxycodone – were at even greater risk of developing prolonged use.
The researchers noted significant geographic differences in prescribing habits, with 40% of study participants in Arkansas receiving an opioid prescription, compared with 2.8% in North Dakota. Overall, southern states were more likely to overprescribe, and northern states more likely to underprescribe.
Women were at greater risk of transitioning to high-risk prolonged use, as were individuals aged 35-44 years, those with a higher comorbidity burden, or those with a history of drug abuse.
The study was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics at the University of Pennsylvania. One author declared an honorarium from the United Health Group.
SOURCE: Delgado MK et al. Ann Emerg Med. 2018. Jul 24. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2018.06.003.