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New guidelines for gadolinium-based contrast agents take conservative stance


 

REPORTING FROM THE CMSC ANNUAL MEETING

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– Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are necessary for the accurate initial diagnosis of patients experiencing a first clinical attack of symptoms consistent with multiple sclerosis and for following patients with highly active disease or sudden, unexpected declines.

But according to new guidelines issued by the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers, GBCAs are optional – although helpful – in many other clinical scenarios, especially when noncontrast MRI can provide answers.

“The key is that there is an optional role for gadolinium,” David Li, MD, said at the annual meeting of the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers. Although a GBCA is still “essential” for some clinical scenarios in clinically isolated syndrome and MS, the new guidelines suggest that standard, high-quality MRI without contrast can adequately identify the majority of new MS lesions over time.

“But I would like to remind you that if you need to know about ongoing, current activity,” in settings of acute change, then gadolinium is still necessary, Dr. Li of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, said in a video interview.

The guideline is an update of CMSC’s 2015 document, which endorsed a more liberal use of GBCAs. This more conservative stance reflects new research on the agents and an update in 2017 from the Food and Drug Administration that required a class-wide warning about gadolinium retention.

The agency began investigating gadolinium in 2015. In May 2017, it issued a statement confirming that gadolinium accumulates in neural tissue and can be retained for an extended period. However, in reviewing the evidence, FDA found no concerning safety signals. Despite the presumed lack of toxicity, the agency issued the warning and recommended limiting the contrast agent’s use – a move reflected in CMSC’s new MRI protocol guidelines.

“While there is no known CNS toxicity, these agents should be used judiciously, recognizing that gadolinium continues to play an invaluable role in specific circumstances related to the diagnosis and follow-up of individuals with MS,” the document notes.

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