A 30-year-old G2P2 woman presents for a well-woman visit and reports 6 months of premenstrual symptoms including irritability, depression, breast pain, and headaches. She is not taking any medications or hormonal contraceptives. She is sexually active and currently not interested in becoming pregnant. She asks what you can do for her symptoms, as they are affecting her life at home and at work.
Symptoms and definitions vary
Although more than 150 premenstrual symptoms have been reported, the most common psychological and behavioral ones are mood swings, depression, anxiety, irritability, crying, social withdrawal, forgetfulness, and problems concentrating.1-3 The most common physical symptoms are fatigue, abdominal bloating, weight gain, breast tenderness, acne, change in appetite or food cravings, edema, headache, and gastrointestinal upset. The etiology of these symptoms is usually multifactorial, with some combination of hormonal, neurotransmitter, lifestyle, environmental, and psychosocial factors playing a role.
Premenstrual disorder. In reviewing diagnostic criteria for the various premenstrual syndromes and disorders from different organizations (eg, the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition), there is agreement on the following criteria for premenstrual syndrome (PMS)4-6:
- The woman must be ovulating. (Women who no longer menstruate [eg, because of hysterectomy or endometrial ablation] can have premenstrual disorders as long as ovarian function remains intact.)
- The woman experiences a constellation of disabling physical and/or psychological symptoms that appears in the luteal phase of her menstrual cycle.
- The symptoms improve soon after the onset of menses.
- There is a symptom-free interval before ovulation.
- There is prospective documentation of symptoms for at least 2 consecutive cycles.
- The symptoms are sufficient in severity to affect activities of daily living and/or important relationships.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder. PMDD is another common premenstrual disorder. It is distinguished by significant premenstrual psychological symptoms and requires the presence of marked affective lability, marked irritability or anger, markedly depressed mood, and/or marked anxiety (TABLE 1).7
Exacerbation of other ailments. Another premenstrual disorder is the premenstrual exacerbation of underlying chronic medical or psychological problems such as migraines, seizures, asthma, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, anxiety, or depression.
Differences in interpretation lead to variations in prevalence
Differences in the interpretation of significant premenstrual symptoms have led to variations in estimated prevalence. For example, 80% to 95% of women report premenstrual symptoms, but only 30% to 40% meet criteria for PMS and only 3% to 8% meet criteria for PMDD.8 Many women who report premenstrual symptoms in a retrospective questionnaire do not meet criteria for PMS or PMDD based on prospective symptom charting. The Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP), a prospective tracking tool for premenstrual symptoms, is sensitive and specific for diagnosing PMS and PMDD if administered on the first day of menstruation.9
Ask about symptoms and use a tracking tool
When you see a woman for a well-woman visit or a gynecologic problem, inquire about physical/emotional symptoms and their severity during the week that precedes menstruation. If a patient reports few symptoms of a mild nature, then no further work-up is needed.
Continue to: If patients report significant...