Conference Coverage

Putting IBD medication risks into perspective


 

EXPERT ANALYSIS FROM GUILD 2018

– Prolonged corticosteroid therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was associated with a significantly increased mortality risk compared with anti–tumor necrosis factor therapy in a landmark study spotlighted by Edward V. Loftus Jr., MD, at the Gastroenterology Updates, IBD, Liver Disease meeting.

This was one of several key studies on safety issues involving IBD medications published in the past year. Others highlighted by Dr. Loftus and copanelist William J. Sandborn, MD, included a study that provided persuasive evidence that TNF inhibitors modestly increase lymphoma risk in IBD patients to a degree similar to that of thiopurines, and several reports addressing the question of whether preoperative use of vedolizumab in patients undergoing major abdominal operations for IBD boosts postoperative infection risk.

Mortality impact of prolonged steroids vs. anti-TNF therapy

Dr. Edward V. Loftus Jr. (left), of the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., and Dr. William J. Sandborn of the University of California, San Diego Bruce Jancin/MDedge News

Dr. Edward V. Loftus Jr. (left) and Dr. William J. Sandborn

A retrospective cohort study of more than 13,000 Medicare and Medicaid patients with IBD demonstrated that those on prolonged corticosteroid therapy – defined as more than 3,000 mg of prednisone or its equivalent in a 12-month period – had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with IBD patients on an anti-TNF agent.

That will come as an unpleasant surprise to many physicians. There is a widespread reluctance to turn to continuous chronic immunosuppression via anti-TNF therapy in patients with challenging IBD, particularly in elderly individuals with multiple comorbid conditions. Many physicians have heard and read so much about the biologics’ risks of serious adverse events that they opt instead for multiple courses of corticosteroids for disease control. This is a serious mistake, emphasized Dr. Loftus, professor of medicine and director of the IBD Interest Group at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.

“When you say, ‘Oh, I’ll just give that patient another prednisone taper, he doesn’t want to start taking a TNF inhibitor,’ you’re actually doing the patient harm. You’re actually affecting the patient’s life expectancy when you do that,” he declared. “The message is, yes, steroids are cheap, steroids are easy, nobody’s afraid of steroids, but you should be afraid of steroids.”

The 1,879 Crohn’s disease patients who entered the cohort as new users of anti-TNF therapy had a subsequent mortality incidence rate of 21.4 per 1,000 person-years, compared with a rate of 30.1 per 1,000 person-years in the 7,694 who entered the study period as prolonged steroid users. In a multivariate analysis accounting for 57 potential confounding factors, this translated to a highly significant 22% relative risk reduction in mortality in the patients who went with anti-TNF therapy (Am J Gastroenterol. 2018 Jan 16. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2017.479).


A similar trend was seen in the ulcerative colitis cohort. The 459 ulcerative colitis patients who entered the cohort as new anti-TNF therapy users had a mortality incidence rate of 23.0 per 1,000 person-years, compared with a rate of 30.9 in the 3,224 who received more than 3,000 mg of prednisone in the next 12 months. This represented a 14% relative risk reduction, although this favorable trend did not achieve statistical significance, perhaps because of the smaller size of the ulcerative colitis cohort.

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