Adding the immune checkpoint inhibitor atezolizumab (Tecentriq) to doublet or triplet regimens as first-line treatment for nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not cost effective, even by a long shot, concluded a Markov modeling study.
Positive results of the IMpower150 trial led the Food and Drug Administration to approve and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network to recommend the combination of atezolizumab, bevacizumab, carboplatin, and paclitaxel (ABCP) as an option for selected patients in this setting, noted the investigators, led by XiaoMin Wan, PhD, of the department of pharmacy at the Second Xiangya Hospital and the Institute of Clinical Pharmacy, both at Central South University, Changsha, China.
“Although adding atezolizumab to the combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy results in significantly higher survival in patients with metastatic NSCLC, the question of whether its price reflects its potential benefit remains unclear from a value standpoint,” they wrote.
Dr. Wan and colleagues developed a Markov model to compare the lifetime cost and effectiveness of various combinations – the quadruplet ABCP regimen, the triplet BCP regimen (bevacizumab, carboplatin, and paclitaxel), and the doublet CP regimen (carboplatin and paclitaxel) – when used as first‐line treatment for metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC.
ABCP yielded an additional 0.413 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and 0.460 life-years, compared with BCP, and an additional 0.738 QALYs and 0.956 life-years, compared with CP. Respective incremental costs were $234,998 and $381,116, the investigators reported in.
Ultimately, ABCP had an incremental cost‐effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $568,967 per QALY, compared with BCP, and $516,114 per QALY, compared with CP – both of which far exceeded the conventional $100,000 ICER per QALY willingness-to-pay threshold.
Although atezolizumab targets programmed death–ligand 1 (PD-L1), the ICER improved only modestly to $464,703 per QALY when treatment was given only to patients having PD‐L1 expression of at least 50% on tumor cells or at least 10% on immune cells. Findings were similar when the duration of atezolizumab therapy was restricted to 2 years.
However, steep reductions in the costs of the two targeted agents altered results. Specifically, ABCP had an ICER of $99,786 and $162,441 per QALY, compared with BCP and CP, respectively, when the costs of atezolizumab and bevacizumab were reduced by 70%, and ABCP fell below the $100,000 willingness-to-pay threshold, compared with both regimens, when those costs were reduced by 83%.
“To our knowledge, the current study is the first cost-effectiveness analysis of ABCP, compared with BCP, in the first-line setting for patients with metastatic NSCLC,” Dr. Wan and colleagues noted. “From the perspective of the U.S. payer, ABCP is estimated not to be cost effective, compared with BCP or CP, in the first-line setting for patients with metastatic, nonsquamous NSCLC at a [willingness-to-pay] threshold of $100,000 per QALY.”
“Although ABCP is not considered to be cost effective, this does not mean that patients should receive the less-effective treatment strategy of BCP,” they cautioned, noting that recent cost-effectiveness data appear to favor the first-line combination of another immune checkpoint inhibitor, pembrolizumab (Keytruda), with chemotherapy instead. “A price reduction is warranted to make ABCP cost effective and affordable.”
Dr. Wan did not report any relevant conflicts of interest. The study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the research project of the Health and Family Planning Commission of Hunan province.
SOURCE: Wan X et al. Cancer. 2019 Jul 9. .