Patients with textured silicone gluteal implants could be at risk of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, based on a possible case of ALCL in a patient diagnosed 1 year after implant placement.
The 49-year-old woman was initially diagnosed with anaplastic lymphoma kinase–negative ALCL via a lung mass and pleural fluid before bilateral gluteal ulceration occurred 1 month later, reported Orr Shauly of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, and his colleagues.
Soft-tissue disease and fluid accumulation around the gluteal implants suggested that the lung mass had metastasized from primary neoplasia in the gluteal region. If ALCL did originate at the site of the gluteal implants, it would represent a first for silicone implant–associated ALCL, which has historically been associated exclusively with breast implants.
“As many as 200 cases of [breast implant-associated ALCL] have been described worldwide, with a majority in the context of cosmetic primary breast augmentation or cancer-related breast reconstruction with the use of a textured implant (57% of all cases),” the investigators wrote in. “Recently however, it has been hypothesized that the relationship of ALCL with the placement of textured silicone implants may not [be] limited to the breast due to its multifactorial nature and association with texturization of the implant surface.”
During the initial work-up, a CT showed fluid collection and enhancement around the gluteal implants. Following ALCL diagnosis via lung mass biopsy and histopathology, the patient was transferred to a different facility for chemotherapy. When the patient presented 1 month later to the original facility with gluteal ulceration, the oncology team suspected infection; however, all cultures from fluid around the implants were negative.
Because of the possibility of false-negative tests, the patient was started on a regimen of acyclovir, vancomycin, metronidazole, and isavuconazole. Explantation was planned, but before this could occur, the patient deteriorated rapidly and died of respiratory and renal failure.
ALCL was not confirmed via cytology or histopathology in the gluteal region, and the patient’s family did not consent to autopsy, so a definitive diagnosis of gluteal implant–associated ALCL remained elusive.
“In this instance, it can only be concluded that the patient’s condition may have been associated with placement of textured silicone gluteal implants, but [we] still lack evidence of causation,” the investigators wrote. “It should also be noted that ALCL does not typically present with skin ulceration, and this may be a unique disease process in this patient or as a result of her bedridden state given the late stage of her disease. Furthermore, this presentation was uniquely aggressive and presented extremely quickly after placement of the gluteal implants. In most patients, ALCL develops and presents approximately 10 years after implantation.”
The investigators cautioned that “care should be taken to avoid sensationalizing all implant-associated ALCL.”
The authors reported having no conflicts of interest and the study did not receive funding.
SOURCE: Shauly O et al. Aesthet Surg J. 2019 Feb 15. .