LA JOLLA, CA—Mogamulizumab is a valuable new therapeutic option for patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), according to researchers.
Results of the phase 3 MAVORIC study indicated that mogamulizumab is more effective than vorinostat in previously treated patients with CTCL.
Mogamulizumab produced a better overall response rate (ORR) and prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in these patients.
Infusion-related reactions and drug eruptions were more common in patients who received mogamulizumab.
Youn H. Kim, MD, of the Stanford Cancer Institute in Palo Alto, California, and her colleagues presented these results in a poster at the 10th Annual T-cell Lymphoma Forum. The study was funded by Kyowa Kirin Pharmaceutical Development, Inc.
MAVORIC enrolled 372 adults with histologically confirmed mycosis fungoides (MF) or Sézary syndrome (SS) who had failed at least 1 systemic therapy. They were randomized to receive mogamulizumab at 1.0 mg/kg (weekly for the first 4-week cycle and then every 2 weeks) or vorinostat at 400 mg daily.
Patients were treated until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Those receiving vorinostat could crossover to mogamulizumab if they progressed or experienced intolerable toxicity.
Baseline characteristics were similar between the treatment arms. The median age was 64 (range, 54-73) in the mogamulizumab arm and 65 (range, 56-72) in the vorinostat arm. Ninety-nine percent and 100% of patients, respectively, had an ECOG performance status of 0 to 1.
A little more than half of patients in each arm had MF—57% in the mogamulizumab arm and 53% in the vorinostat arm.
The median number of prior systemic therapies was 3 in both arms (range, 1-18 in the mogamulizumab arm and 0-14 in the vorinostat arm).
The primary endpoint was PFS, and mogamulizumab provided a significant improvement there. The median PFS was 7.7 months with mogamulizumab and 3.1 months with vorinostat (hazard ratio=0.53, P<0.0001).
The researchers also observed a significant improvement in global ORR with mogamulizumab. It was 28% (52/189) in that arm and 5% (9/186) in the vorinostat arm (P<0.0001).
For patients with MF, the ORR was 21% with mogamulizumab and 7% with vorinostat. For SS patients, the ORR was 37% and 2%, respectively.
Responses by disease compartment were superior with mogamulizumab as well.
“Especially in the blood compartment, mogamulizumab had very striking activity over vorinostat,” Dr Kim said.
The blood ORR was 68% with mogamulizumab and 19% with vorinostat. The skin ORR was 42% and 16%, respectively. The lymph node ORR was 17% and 4%, respectively. The viscera ORR was 0% in both arms.
After crossover, the ORR in the mogamulizumab arm was 30% (41/136).
The median duration of response (DOR) was 14 months in the mogamulizumab arm and 9 months in the vorinostat arm.
For MF patients, the median DOR was 13 months with mogamulizumab and 9 months with vorinostat. For SS patients, the median DOR was 17 months and 7 months, respectively.
“Side effects [of mogamulizumab] were very well tolerable,” Dr Kim said. “Most significant is rash and infusion reactions, but, in terms of severe adverse events, [they] were very minimal.”
The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), occurring in at least 20% of patients in either arm (mogamulizumab and vorinostat, respectively), were:
- Infusion-related reactions (33.2% vs 0.5%)
- Drug eruptions (23.9% vs 0.5%)
- Diarrhea (23.4% vs 61.8%)
- Nausea (15.2% vs 42.5%)
- Thrombocytopenia (11.4% vs 30.6%)
- Dysgeusia (3.3% vs 28.0%)
- Increased blood creatinine (3.3% vs 28.0%)
- Decreased appetite (7.6% vs 24.7%).
There were no grade 4 AEs in the mogamulizumab arm and 2 cases of grade 4 thrombocytopenia in the vorinostat arm.
Grade 3 AEs in the mogamulizumab arm included drug eruptions (n=8), infusion-related reactions (n=3), fatigue (n=3), decreased appetite (n=2), nausea (n=1), pyrexia (n=1), and diarrhea (n=1).
Grade 3 AEs in the vorinostat arm included thrombocytopenia (n=11), fatigue (n=11), diarrhea (n=9), nausea (n=3), decreased appetite (n=2), and dysgeusia (n=1).
“So the results are, overall, positive,” Dr Kim said. “The data is submitted to the [US Food and Drug Administration]. We are really hoping that [mogamulizumab] will be approved so that we would have a new, exciting treatment for our patients with mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome.”