The liver enzyme autotaxin may be a useful noninvasive marker of disease progression in people with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), new research has suggested.
Satoru Joshita, MD, from the gastroenterology and hepatology department at Shinshu University in Matsumoto, Japan, and colleagues noted that the liver-specific autoimmune disease PBC is characterized by the destruction of bile ducts, leading to cirrhosis and liver failure, and is more often seen in women.
Symptoms at diagnosis, a lack of response to gold standard treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, and more advanced histologic phase are linked to worse patient outcomes, the research team explained in.
While liver biopsy could give vital information on the severity of disease, it is an invasive procedure that is limited by sampling error and interobserver disparity. “As advanced histological stage is associated with a worse prognosis in PBC patients, it is important for clinicians to know clinical stage noninvasively when deciding appropriate therapies,” they wrote.
Noninvasive measures of liver fibrosis and PBC progression are available, such as Wisteria floribunda agglutinin–positive Mac-2 binding protein, hyaluronic acid, and type IV collagen 7S, but the authors said their “diagnostic abilities remain under scrutiny” because of their “moderate” accuracy.
Previous research had described autotaxin (ATX), a secreted enzyme metabolized by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, as a prognostic factor for overall survival in cirrhosis patients, which suggested “an important role of ATX in the progression of liver disease,” the researchers noted.
They therefore set out to assess its utility as a marker of primary biliary cholangitis disease progression by measuring the serum ATX values of 128 treatment-naive, histologically assessed PBC patients, 108 of whom were female and 20 were male. Their ATX levels were then compared with 80 healthy controls.