CHICAGO – Acute kidney injury (AKI) doubles the risk of death among patients hospitalized for acute pancreatitis, Kalpit Devani, MD, reported at the annual Digestive Disease Week®.
This severe complication of acute pancreatitis also significantly increases the length of stay and drives up hospital costs, said Dr. Devani of East Tennessee State University, Johnson City. Fortunately, although the risks associated with it remain high, death from AKI in the setting of acute pancreatitis has decreased significantly, from a high of 17% in 2002 to 6.4% in 2012,determined in his database review.
“Increasing awareness and prompt diagnosis of AKI could be the reason for the increasing trend of prevalence of AKI in acute pancreatitis patients,” he said in an interview. “Decreasing mortality can be related to adherence to recent advances in the management approach of acute pancreatitis, such as early (within 24 hours) and aggressive intravenous hydration and early enteral feeding.”
Dr. Devani examined these trends in data extracted from the National Inpatient Sample, 2002-2012. During that 10-year period, almost 3.5 million adults were hospitalized for acute pancreatitis. These patients were a mean of 53 years old, and half were women. Their mean length of stay was just over 5 days, at a mean cost of about $12,000. Of these, 273,687 (7.9%) also developed AKI.
There were some significant differences between those who did and did not develop AKI. AKI patients were significantly older (61 vs. 53 years), and less likely to be women (43% vs. 51%). They had a higherscore (1.49 vs. 0.84). They were also significantly more likely to develop a number of complications, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (2% vs. 0.4%), septic shock (6% vs. 0.3%), sepsis (8.7% vs. 1.4%), acute respiratory failure (18% vs. 2%), and electrolyte disorder (72% vs. 30%).
Not surprisingly, their length of stay was significantly longer (10 vs. 5 days), as was hospitalization cost ($25,923 vs. $10,889). Mortality was much higher, at almost 9% vs. 0.7%.
In a propensity matching analysis, Dr. Devani matched 53,000 pairs of acute pancreatitis patients with and without AKI. This determined that those with AKI faced a doubling in the risk of in-hospital mortality.
He also examined temporal trends with regard to the complication. The rate of diagnosed AKI in hospitalized acute pancreatitis cases rose dramatically, from 4% in 2002 to 11.6% in 2012. However, mortality in acute pancreatitis patients decreased among both those with AKI (17%-6%) and those without (1%-0.4%).
The mean length of stay in patients with AKI and pancreatitis likewise fell, from 14.8 to 8.6 days. Not surprisingly, total hospitalization cost for these patients fell as well ($42,975-$20,716).
Among pancreatitis patients without AKI, length of stay and costs declined, although not as dramatically as they did among AKI patients (6-5 days; $13,654-$10,895).
Dr. Devani had no financial disclosures.