Given the constellation of non-scarring alopecia on the patient’s posterior scalp (with no scale, papules, or plaques), the physician diagnosed alopecia areata (AA) with associated nail pitting in this patient. Although a scalp biopsy could have confirmed the diagnosis, it was not needed because the clinical picture was sufficient.
Nail pitting is commonly associated with psoriasis (although it is often less dense in presentation), but it can occur with alopecia areata. It may occur concurrently or separately from active alopecia. Pitting of the nails may occur in one or multiple fingernails and occurs in up to a third of patients with AA.
The patient’s scalp was treated with intralesional triamcinolone diluted with normal saline to a concentration of 5 mg/mL (0.5%) and injected in dermal blebs over every square centimeter of involvement. Not every 10-year-old can tolerate this modality, and many families prefer observation or topical steroids. Other topical treatments for AA of the scalp include anthralin, minoxidil, and immunotherapy with squaric acid dibutyl ester or diphencyprone. None of these therapies are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of nail disease. There are case reports of systemic tofacitinib clearing significant AA associated nail pitting in adults.
The physician counseled the family to observe the nails and not pursue any antifungal therapies for the nails.
Photos and text for Photo Rounds Friday courtesy of Jonathan Karnes, MD (copyright retained). Dr. Karnes is the medical director of MDFMR Dermatology Services, Augusta, ME.