Lifestyle management and medication
With respect to lifestyle management and pharmacologic treatment, the proposed recommendations, which are based on several large trials, state that an individualized program of medical nutritional therapy should be offered to all patients and that all overweight and obese patients with diabetes should be advised of the health benefits of weight loss. They also should be encouraged to engage in a program of intensive lifestyle management, which may include food substitution, writing group member, said at the meeting.
In the, the average weight loss was about 10 kg in an intervention group that had complete food replacement for 3 months followed by gradual food reintroduction and ongoing counseling versus about 1 kg in controls, and the diabetes remission rate at 1 year was 46% versus 4%, respectively, said Dr. Kernan of Yale University, New Haven, Conn.
In addition, intentional physical activity is known to improve glycemic control and should be encouraged in all patients with T2DM, he said.
“The foundation of hyperglycemia treatment in type 2 diabetes is, for sure, lifestyle modification,” said group member, of Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Rome. “Those patients who are very well motivated and adherent to the [recommendations] can achieve very good results,” she added.
In those in whom lifestyle modification fails to lead to adequate improvement, “a pretty large medication portfolio is available,” she said, adding that the choice of treatment should be based on safety, efficacy, cost, and convenience, factors which are described in the statement.
The hope is that the final consensus statement will make it easier to navigate them, she said.
Finally, bariatric surgery can be considered a very effective salvage therapy, Dr. Mingrone said, noting that only lifestyle modification or bariatric surgery will lead to diabetes remission.
The draft consensus recommendation for bariatric surgery is to consider it in patients with T2DM and a body mass index of 40 kg/m2 or greater (37.5 or greater in those of Asian ancestry), regardless of the level of glycemic control, and in those with BMI of 35-39.9 (32.5-37.4 in those of Asian ancestry) when hyperglycemia is inadequately controlled despite lifestyle and optimal medical therapy.
Decision making and injectable therapies
The statement includes decision-making strategies and algorithms for treatment and addresses issues such as choosing antihyperglycemic medications when weight is a concern (consider an SGLT2 inhibitor or a GLP-1 receptor agonist with good efficacy for weight loss to start – or a combination of both if HbA1c is not on target), when minimizing hypoglycemia is the priority (consider adding an SGLT2 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonist, a TZD, or a DPP-4 inhibitor to metformin therapy to start, followed by reintensification of lifestyle modifications and combination therapies if HbA1c is above target), and when drug costs need to be minimized, as well as when and how to initiate injectable therapies, according to writing group members, of Duke University, Durham, N.C, and , of Katholieke Universteit Leuven (Belgium).