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Vaccine update 2010: Keeping up with the changes

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VACCINE UPDATE FOR ADULTS

Four vaccines are now routinely recommended for adults:

  • Seasonal influenza vaccine starting at age 50
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) starting at age 65
  • Herpes zoster vaccine starting at age 60
  • A diphtheria and tetanus toxoid product every 10 years, with Tdap given once.22

The rest of the adult schedule is based on catch-up (measles, mumps, rubella, varicella) or risk (hepatitis A and B and meningococccal disease). Seasonal influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are also recommended before ages 50 and 65, respectively, for those with certain risk conditions. The complete adult immunization schedule can be found on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Web site.22

One dose of Tdap instead of the next Td booster

The CDC now recommends that a single dose of Tdap should replace the next dose of Td for adults ages 19 to 64 as part of the every-10-year tetanus-diphtheria boosting recommendation and if indicated for wound management. 23 In addition, a single dose of Tdap should be given to adults who have close contact with infants less than 6 months of age. The optimal interval between this Tdap shot and the last Td booster is 2 years or greater, but shorter intervals are acceptable. Women of childbearing age should receive Tdap preconception or postpartum if they have not previously received it. Tdap is not approved for use during pregnancy. Health care workers should also receive a dose of Tdap if they have never received it previously and if their last Td booster was more than 2 years ago, although less than 2 years is acceptable.

Contraindications to Tdap include anaphylaxis to a vaccine component and encephalopathy occurring within 7 days of previously receiving a pertussis vaccine.

Herpes zoster vaccine for those age 60 and older

Shingles causes considerable morbidity in older adults. The lifetime risk is 25%, and onefourth of those with shingles develop postherpetic neuralgia.

Herpes zoster vaccine is a live-attenuated vaccine that requires only a single injection. It is licensed for use in those ages 60 and older, and the ACIP recommends its routine use.24 Its effectiveness is approximately 50% and is inversely related to age. The number of patients who need to be vaccinated to prevent one lifetime case of shingles is 17.

Contraindications to this vaccine include a prior anaphylactic reaction to gelatin or neomycin, compromised immunity due to disease or to immune-suppressive therapy including high-dose corticosteroids, and active tuberculosis.

Payment for this vaccine by Medicare is through Part D, creating some administrative difficulties for physicians’ offices.

Pneumococcal vaccination extended to smokers and people with asthma

The ACIP recently added two new groups for whom PPSV23 is recommended: smokers and those with asthma.25 Smoking poses as much of a risk for pneumococcal pneumonia as do diabetes and other chronic illnesses that are currently indications for the vaccine. The number needed to vaccinate to prevent one case of pneumonia among smokers is 10,000 in people ages 18 to 44, and 4,000 in those ages 45 to 64.26

The ACIP also clarified the recommendation for a second dose of PPSV23.25 A second dose 5 years after the first is recommended for those who have immune suppression, sickle cell disease, or asplenia. People over age 65 should receive a second dose if they were vaccinated more than 5 years previously and before age 65.

New uses for hepatitis A vaccine

A combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine (Twinrix) has received approval for an alternate, four-dose schedule at 0, 7, 21 days, and 12 months.27 It has previously only been approved for a three-dose schedule at 0, 1, and 6 months. The new alternative schedule allows greater protection for travelers who need to depart within less than 1 month.

For unvaccinated people who are acutely exposed to hepatitis A virus and for those traveling to areas of high prevalence who do not have time to complete the two doses of hepatitis A vaccine, the only prevention available until recently has been immune globulin. This has changed: hepatitis A vaccine can now be used in both groups. The new recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis is that either a single dose of hepatitis A vaccine or use of immune globulin is acceptable.28 In ages 12 months to 40 years, vaccine is preferred. For those over age 40, immune globulin is preferred, but vaccine is acceptable. For children younger than 12 months, the immune-suppressed, and those with chronic liver disease, immune globulin should be used.

Those traveling or working in countries with high rates of hepatitis A can be protected with either hepatitis A vaccine or immune globulin. A single dose of the vaccine is sufficient for healthy people, with a second dose at the recommended interval to complete the series. Those younger than 12 months and those who choose not to receive the vaccine, including those who are allergic to it, should be offered immune globulin. Both immune globulin and hepatitis A vaccine should be considered for certain patients who plan to travel within 2 weeks of the first vaccine dose, ie, those over age 40, those with compromised immunity, and those with chronic liver disease or other chronic conditions.

Hepatitis A vaccine is now also recommended for all unvaccinated people who anticipate close personal contact with an international adoptee during the first 60 days following arrival from countries with high or intermediate hepatitis A endemicity.29 The first dose should be given as soon as the adoption is planned and ideally at least 2 weeks before the child arrives.

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