One month of dual-antiplatelet therapy followed by aspirin monotherapy in patients who’ve received a drug-eluting stent proved noninferior to 6-12 months of DAPT for a composite 1-year endpoint of cardiovascular events or major bleeding in the large, randomized One-Month DAPT trial.
This is the first test of such a strategy. Other trials of short-course DAPT, such as the successful TWILIGHT trial, have dropped the aspirin and continued the P2Y12 inhibitor. But aspirin monotherapy after a single month of DAPT is an attractive alternative in patients undergoing PCI for noncomplex lesions, Myeong-Ki Hong, MD, PhD, said in presenting his results at the American Heart Association scientific sessions.
“In everyday clinical practice, people receiving P2Y12 receptor blockers usually complain of several episodes of minor bleeding. And the cost. Those are strong factors in patient noncompliance,” he said, adding, “I think aspirin monotherapy is more comfortable for the physician and the patient.”
The One-Month DAPT trial included 3,020 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents (DES) at 23 Korean centers. They were split roughly 60/40 between patients with stable angina and those with acute coronary syndrome involving unstable angina. Patients with complex coronary lesions or acute MI were not eligible for enrollment. Participants were randomized to receive either the polymer-free drug-coated BioFreedom stent, in which case they got 1 month of DAPT followed by 11 months of aspirin antiplatelet monotherapy, or they received 6 or 12 months of DAPT in conjunction with a thick-strut BioMatrix or an Ultimaster polymer-based DES. The reason for using different stents in the two study arms is that only the polymer-free stent completes drug release within 1 month; other contemporary DESs release their drug for 3-4 months, and it’s risky to discontinue one of the antiplatelet agents during drug elution, said Dr. Hong, professor of cardiology at Yonsei University in Seoul, South Korea.
Patients with stable angina fared best
The primary endpoint in this noninferiority trial was the 1-year composite of cardiac death, MI, target vessel revascularization, stroke, or major bleeding. The incidence was 5.9% in the 1-month DAPT group, statistically noninferior to the 6.5% figure in the 6- or 12-month DAPT group. The major bleeding rate at 1 year was 1.7% with 1 month of DAPT and 2.5% with 6-12 months of DAPT, a nonsignificant difference. Of note, the primary composite endpoint occurred in 5.1% of patients with stable angina who were randomized to 1 month of DAPT, compared with 7.6% with 6 or 12 months of DAPT, a statistically significant difference that translated into a 33% relative risk reduction. In contrast, in patients with unstable angina the primary endpoint occurred in 7.2% of those on 1 month of DAPT and 5.1% with 6 or 12 months of DAPT, a trend that didn’t reach significance.
Roughly 75% of patients in the long-DAPT arm were assigned to 12 months of DAPT. That’s because the trial began in 2015, before clinical practice guidelines declared 6 months of DAPT to be the recommendation in patients with stable coronary artery disease. The choice of 6 versus 12 months of DAPT in the trial was left up to the patient’s physician.
Discussant Roisin Colleran, MBBCh, said the study addresses “an unmet clinical need” for improved antiplatelet regimens following PCI with DES.