Since the first liver transplant (LT) was performed in 1963 by Starzl et al, there have been considerable advances in the field, with improvements in post-transplant survival.1 There are multiple indications for LT, including acute liver failure and index complications of cirrhosis such as ascites, encephalopathy, and hepatopulmonary syndrome.2 Once a patient develops one of these conditions, he/she is evaluated for LT, even as the complications of liver failure are being managed.
Although the number of LTs has risen, the demand for transplant continues to exceed availability. In 2015, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis was the 12th leading cause of death in the United States.3 In 2016, approximately 50% of waitlisted candidates received a transplant.4 There is also a donor shortage. In part, this shortage may be due to longer life spans and the subsequent increase in the age of the potential donor.5 In light of this shortage and increased demand, the pre-LT workup is comprehensive. The pre-transplant assessment typically consists of cardiology, surgery, hepatology, and psychosocial evaluations, and hence requires a team of experts to determine who is an ideal candidate for transplant.
Psychiatrists play a key role in the pre-transplant psychosocial evaluations. This article describes the elements of these evaluations, and what psychiatrists can do to help patients both before and after they undergo LT.
Elements of the pre-transplant evaluation
The psychosocial evaluation is a critical component of the pre-transplant assessment. As part of the evaluation, patients are screened for psychosocial limitations that may complicate transplantation, such as demonstrated noncompliance, ongoing alcohol or drug use, and lack of social support (Table 12 ). Other goals of the psychosocial evaluation are to identify in the pre-transplant period patients with possible risk factors, such as substance use or psychiatric disorders, and develop treatment plans to optimize transplant outcomes (Table 26). There are relative contraindications to LT (Table 37) but no absolute psychiatric contraindications, according to the 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) practice guideline for transplantation.2
Adherence. The 2013 AASLD practice guideline states that patients “should be evaluated for and meet reasonable expectations for adherence to medical directives and mental health stability as determined by the psychosocial evaluation.”2 In the transplant setting, adherence is complex. It requires compliance with complicated medication regimens and laboratory testing, frequent follow-up appointments, and close, prompt communication of concerns to the health care team. Patient adherence to medication regimens plays an important role in transplant outcomes.8 In fact, in patients who have undergone renal transplant, nonadherence to therapy is considered the leading cause of avoidable graft failure.9
A retrospective study of adult LT recipients found that pre-transplant chart evidence of nonadherence, such as missed laboratory testing and clinic visits, was a significant predictor of post-transplant nonadherence with immunosuppressant therapy. Pre-transplant unemployment status and a history of substance abuse also were associated with nonadherence.9
Dobbels et al10 found that patients with a self-reported history of pre-transplant non-adherence had a higher risk of being nonadherent with their immunosuppressive therapy after transplant (odd ratio [OR]: 7.9). Their self-report adherence questionnaire included questions that addressed pre-transplant smoking status, alcohol use, and adherence with medication. In this prospective study, researchers also found that patients with a low “conscientiousness” score were at a higher risk for post-transplant medication nonadherence (OR: 0.8).
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