Less than a decade ago, the ED at Rady Children’s Hospital in San Diego would see maybe one or two young psychiatric patients per day, said Benjamin Maxwell, MD, the hospital’s interim director of child and adolescent psychiatry.
Now, it’s not unusual for the ED to see 10 psychiatric patients in a day, and sometimes even 20, said Dr. Maxwell. “What a lot of times is happening now is kids aren’t getting the care they need, until it gets to the point where it is dangerous.”
EDs throughout California are reporting a sharp increase in adolescents and young adults seeking care for a mental health crisis. In 2018, California EDs treated 84,584 young patients aged 13-21 years who had a primary diagnosis involving mental health. That is up from 59,705 in 2012, a 42% increase, according to data provided by the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development.
By comparison, the number of ED encounters among that age group for all other diagnoses grew by just 4% over the same period. And the number of encounters involving mental health among all other age groups – everyone except adolescents and young adults – rose by about 18%.
The spike in youth mental health visits corresponds withthat found that members of “Generation Z” – defined in the survey as people born since 1997 – are more likely than other generations to report their mental health as fair or poor. The 2018 polling, done on behalf of the American Psychological Association, also found that members of Generation Z, along with millennials, are more likely to report receiving treatment for mental health issues.
The trend corresponds with another alarming development, as well: a marked increase in suicides among teens and young adults. Aboutyoung people aged 13-21 in California died by suicide in 2017, up from a rate of 4.9 per 100,000 in 2008, according to the latest figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nationwide, suicides in that age range rose from 7.2 to 11.3 per 100,000 from 2008 to 2017.
Researchers are studying the causes for the surging reports of mental distress among America’s young people. Many recent theories note that the trend parallels the rise of social media, an ever-present window on peer activities that can exacerbate adolescent insecurities and open new avenues of bullying.
“Even though this generation has been raised with social media, youth are feeling more disconnected, judged, bullied, and pressured from their peers,” said Susan Coats, EdD, a school psychologist at Baldwin Park Unified School District near Los Angeles.
“Social media: It’s a blessing and it’s a curse,” Dr. Coats added. “Social media has brought youth together in a forum where maybe they may have felt isolated before, but it also has undermined interpersonal relationships.”
Members of Generation Z also report significant levels of stress about personal debt, housing instability, and hunger, as well as mass shootings and climate change, according to the American Psychological Association survey.
“We’re not doing a great job with … catching things before they devolve into broader problems, and we’re not doing a good job with prevention,” said Lishaun Francis, associate director of health collaborations at Children Now, a nonprofit based in Oakland, Calif.
Many California school districts don’t have enough school psychologists and don’t devote enough resources to teaching students how to cope with depression, anxiety, and other mental health issues, said Ms. Coats, who chairs the mental health and crisis consultation committee of the California Association of School Psychologists.
In the broader community, medical providers also are struggling to keep up. “Many times there aren’t psychiatric beds available for kids in our community,” Dr. Maxwell said.
Most of the adolescents who come into the ED at Rady Children’s Hospital during a mental health crisis are considering suicide, have attempted suicide, or have harmed themselves, said Dr. Maxwell, who is also the hospital’s medical director of inpatient psychiatry.
These patients are triaged and quickly seen by a social worker. Often, a behavioral health assistant is assigned to sit with the patients throughout their stay.
“Suicidal patients – we don’t want them to be alone at all in a busy emergency department,” Dr. Maxwell said. “So that’s a major staffing increase.”
Rady Children’s Hospital plans to open a six-bed, 24-hour psychiatric ED in the spring. Improving emergency care will help, Dr. Maxwell said, but a better solution would be to intervene with young people before they need an ED.
“The ED surge probably represents a failure of the system at large,” Dr. Maxwell said. “They’re ending up in the emergency department because they’re not getting the care they need, when they need it.”
Phillip Reese is a data reporting specialist and an assistant professor of journalism at California State University–Sacramento. Thisstory first published on , a service of the . KHN is a nonprofit national health policy news service. It is an editorially independent program of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation that is not affiliated with Kaiser Permanente.