according to a report published in .
For many children, the anticipation of pain and the anxiety about a procedure results in a more painful experience, wrote Andrew M. Armenta of the University of Texas, Galveston, and his colleagues. Preparing children in advance and using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies in the moment can help reduce their anxiety.
“CBT is a skill‐based approach that focuses on the present and aims to teach efficient ways of identifying distorted thinking, modifying beliefs, and changing behaviors for a more favorable outcome of real‐life situations,” they wrote.
First, Dr. Armenta and his associates advised, be honest with children about what to expect from a procedure. Evidence does not support phrases such as, “It won’t hurt,” or “It will be over soon,” to reduce anxiety.
Timing the disclosure of a procedure and creating the appropriate setting also can help reduce anxiety. For very young children, short notice of a procedure is often best, with the promise of a small reward or outing afterward. Older children may want some advance notice so they can feel prepared, but their specific concerns should be addressed.
CBT-based techniques include deep breathing and positive coping statements such as “I can do this” for older children, or encouraging them to talk about a family pet or listen to music. Younger children may be distracted with pinwheels, rattles, or songs. “Additionally, in recent years, virtual reality headsets have even proved to be effective distractors, resulting in an overall reduction in both pain and fear,” Dr. Armenta and his associates noted.
Other useful strategies include allowing children to choose their position and location for an injection or procedure when possible. Small children may be able to sit on the lap of an adult, and older children may prefer sitting up to lying down. Avoid physical restraint unless it is absolutely necessary for safety, the researchers emphasized.
Incorporating CBT-based strategies of breathing and distraction with honesty and respectful disclosure of what is being done and why “not only makes practicing pediatric dermatology easier, but also can improve patient adherence to painful procedures,” they said.
No disclosure information was given.
SOURCE: Armenta AM et al.