Commentary: Improving transgender education for medical students


Dr. Safer is executive director, Center for Transgender Medicine and Surgery, Mount Sinai Health System and Icahn School of Medicine, New York.


1. Coleman E et al. Standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender-nonconforming people, Version 7. Int J Transgend. 2012;13:165.

2. Hembree WC et al. Endocrine treatment of gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent persons: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:3869-903.

3. Safer JD et al. Barriers to healthcare for transgender individuals. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2016;23:168-71.

4. Flores AR et al. How many adults identify as transgender in the United States? The Williams Institute. 2017 Jun. Los Angeles, Calif. (Accessed on Oct. 30, 2018).

5. Irwig MS. Transgender care by endocrinologists in the United States. Endocr Pract. 2016 Jul;22:832-6.

6. White W et al. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patient care: Medical students’ preparedness and comfort. Teach Learn Med. 2015 Jul 9;27:254-63.

7. Chan B et al. Gaps in transgender medicine content identified among Canadian medical school curricula. Transgend Health. 2016 Jul 1;1:142-50.

8. Liang JJ et al. Observed deficiencies in medical student knowledge of transgender and intersex health. Endocr Pract. 2017 Aug;23:897-906.

9. Park JA et al. Clinical exposure to transgender medicine improves students’ preparedness above levels seen with didactic teaching alone: A key addition to the Boston University model for teaching transgender healthcare. Transgend Health. 2018 Jan 1;3:10-6.

10. Eriksson SE et al. Evidence-based curricular content improves student knowledge and changes attitudes towards transgender medicine. Endocr Pract. 2016 Jul;22:837-41.

11. Safer JD et al. A simple curriculum content change increased medical student comfort with transgender medicine. Endocr Pract. 2013 Jul-Aug;19:633-7.

12. Morrison SD et al. Transgender-related education in plastic surgery and urology residency programs. J Grad Med Educ. 2017 Apr;9:178-83.


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