From the Journals

Counsel children and young adults on skin cancer prevention

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Terminology and counseling logistics must evolve to be effective

The term “fair skin types” as used in the USPSTF recommendations is not necessarily helpful in identifying individuals who could benefit from skin cancer prevention counseling, June K. Robinson, MD, and Nina G. Jablonski, PhD, wrote in an accompanying editorial (JAMA. 2018;319[11]:1101-2). Hair and eye color do not predict sun sensitivity, and in general, men and individuals with darker skin don’t think they are at risk for skin cancer even when they sunburn, they noted.

“The terminology that is used by investigators and then incorporated into the USPSTF evidence base needs to evolve to include all persons at risk, without disenfranchising portions of the diverse U.S. population,” they said. In addition to skin type, physicians need to evaluate a patient’s melanoma risk based on lifestyle factors, such as time spent outdoors, photosensitizing medications, and sun protection habits, they added, but primary care clinicians often lack the time to offer personalized sun protection counseling.

“It would be better to encourage people to check the UV Index daily – or consider a mobile application that automatically provides it – and plan outdoor activities, especially physical activities, to be sun safe,” they said. In addition, individuals may be more likely to manage skin cancer risk with a mix of supportive messages via social media to augment in-person counseling from a clinician; furthermore, “normative approval by friends and peers can have a strong reinforcing influence on sun safety behaviors, particularly among youth, who are at a vulnerable age for acquiring melanoma risk,” they emphasized.

Dr. Robinson is a research professor of dermatology at Northwestern University, Chicago, and is the editor of JAMA Dermatology. She is supported in part by the National Cancer Institute. Dr. Jablonski is a professor of anthropology at Pennsylvania State University, University Park. Dr. Robinson had no financial conflicts to disclose; Dr. Jablonski has served on the scientific advisory board of the L’Oreal Group.


 

FROM JAMA

No age is too young to be educated about skin cancer prevention, according to recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). The recommendations, published online March 20 in JAMA, advise clinicians to counsel young adults, children, and parents of young children who are aged 6 months to 24 years and have fair skin types about skin cancer prevention. Counseling for individuals aged 24 years and older should be based on a clinician’s assessment of patient risk.

The recommendations target asymptomatic individuals with no history of skin cancer who might be likely to sunburn easily, wrote David C. Grossman, MD, of Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, the corresponding author of the USPSTF recommendation statement, and his associates.

The task force found adequate (grade B) evidence to support behavioral counseling for children and young adults aged 6 months to 24 years with no notable risk of harm from this intervention. The task force gave a grade C recommendation for routine skin cancer counseling for adults older than 24 years, citing a small net benefit. In addition, the USPSTF found insufficient evidence (I statement) to evaluate the risks versus benefits of counseling adults about skin self-examination as a way to reduce skin cancer risk.

In the evidence report, lead author Nora B. Henrikson, PhD, of Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, and her colleagues addressed five topics: the effects of skin cancer prevention counseling on short- and long-term outcomes, the effects of primary care counseling interventions on skin cancer prevention behavior, the association between skin self-examination and skin cancer outcomes, the potential harms of counseling interventions, and the potential harms of skin self-examinations.

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