Older patients with migraine may be more likely to have silent brain injury than older patients without migraine, according to research published online ahead of print May 15 in Stroke. Researchers analyzed data from the Northern Manhattan Study, which quantified subclinical brain infarctions and white matter hyperintensity volumes among participants with migraine. Of the 546 participants analyzed, 41% were men, 65% were Hispanic, and mean age at MRI was 71. Patients with migraine had double the odds of subclinical brain infarction, compared with those reporting no migraine, after the investigators adjusted for sociodemographics and vascular risk factors. No association was observed between migraine with or without aura and white matter hyperintensity volume. Patients with migraine should not worry, because their risk of ischemic stroke is small, said the authors.
People who are exposed to paint, glue, or degreaser fumes at work may experience memory and thinking problems in retirement, according to a study published May 13 in Neurology. Researchers examined data for 2,143 retired utility workers who underwent cognitive testing in 2010. The authors assessed workers’ lifetime exposure to chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, and benzene using a job exposure matrix. Approximately 33% of participants were exposed to chlorinated solvents, 26% to benzene, and 25% to petroleum solvents. Workers highly exposed to chlorinated solvents were at risk of impairment on the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, semantic fluency test, and the Trail Making Test B. Retirees at greatest risk for deficits had high lifetime exposure to solvents and were last exposed 12 to 30 years before testing.
Females susceptible to multiple sclerosis (MS) produce higher levels of the blood vessel receptor protein S1PR2 than males, according to data published online ahead of print May 8 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. S1PR2 is present at high levels in the brain areas that MS typically damages. Investigators studied a mouse model of MS and found increased activity of S1PR2, which opens up the blood–brain barrier. When the researchers tested brain tissue samples obtained from 20 human patients after death, they found more S1PR2 in patients with MS than in those without the disorder. Brain tissue from females also had higher levels of S1PR2, compared with male brain tissue. These findings may help explain why more women than men get the disease, said the authors.
The FDA has required the manufacturer of the sleep drug Lunesta (eszopiclone) to lower the recommended starting dose from 2 mg to 1 mg for men and women. Data show that eszopiclone levels in some patients may be high enough on the morning after treatment to impair activities that require alertness, including driving. The 1-mg dose, taken at bedtime, can be increased to 2 mg or 3 mg if needed, but the higher doses are more likely to result in next-day impairment. Using lower doses ensures that less drug will remain in the body during the morning hours. Patients currently taking the 2-mg and 3-mg doses of Lunesta should contact their health care professional to ask for instructions, according to the FDA.
The rate of visits to an emergency department (ED) for traumatic brain injury (TBI) increased by approximately 30% between 2006 and 2010, according to research published in the May 14 issue of JAMA. The increase may be attributable to various factors, including increased awareness and diagnoses, said the authors. The investigators examined data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database to determine national trends in ED visits for TBI from 2006 through 2010. An estimated 2.5 million ED visits for TBI occurred in 2010, representing a 29% increase in the rate of visits for TBI during the study period. By comparison, total ED visits increased by 3.6%. Children younger than 3 and adults older than 60 had the largest increase in TBI rates.
The pathophysiologic biomarkers and the topographic markers of Alzheimer’s disease should be revised, according to a position paper by the International Working Group published in the June issue of Lancet Neurology. The group proposed that biomarkers of Alzheimer’s pathology be restricted to those indicating the presence of tau pathology (ie, CSF or PET tau) and amyloid pathology (ie, CSF or PET amyloid). These biomarkers are specific enough to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease at any point on the disease continuum, said the authors. Downstream topographic markers of brain regional structural and metabolic changes have insufficient pathologic specificity and should not be used in diagnosis, according to the researchers. Instead, these markers can be used to measure disease progression. The group also provided diagnostic criteria for atypical, mixed, and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease.