DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA – Children exposed to HIV in utero but uninfected at birth have neurodevelopmental test scores at age 24 months that are comparable with those of unexposed children, based on a study conducted in Botswana and presented by Jean Leidner at the 21st International AIDS Conference.
“These results provide reassurance regarding the potential effects of in-utero HIV and antiretroviral exposure,” declared Ms. Leidner, CEO of Goodtables Data Consulting in Norman, Okla., and the.
The two groups of children had virtually identical scores on the cognitive, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, and receptive language domains measured in the Bayley-III. The same was true for scores on the fine motor, locomotor, language, and personal-social elements of the Developmental Milestone Checklist.
The two groups of children differed in other ways; 17% of the uninfected children exposed to HIV in utero and 8% of the controls were low birth weight. The HIV-exposed children are being raised in a more challenging environment: just 49% have electricity in the home, compared with 64% of control families. Moreover, 53% of the HIV-exposed children and 33% of the controls live under conditions of moderate-to-severe food uncertainty.
Only 8% of the HIV-infected mothers breastfed, whereas breastfeeding was universal among the control group.
More than 99% of the HIV-infected mothers took antiretroviral medication antenatally. Roughly two-thirds were on zidovudine (Retrovir) monotherapy, the rest on a three-drug regimen of nevirapine (Viramune) plus lamivudine/zidovudine (Combivir). These are older antiretrovirals. Additional neurodevelopmental studies are warranted in children with in-utero exposure to newer agents, as well as in older children, Ms. Leidner said.
She reported having no financial conflicts regarding this study, which was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health.