SAN ANTONIO – Jeffrey Schwartz, MD, reported at the annual meeting of the American College of Gastroenterology.
The magnitude of the age-related increased risk highlighted in this large national study was strikingly larger than the differential inpatient mortality between geriatric and nongeriatric patients hospitalized for conditions other than inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It’s a finding that reveals a major unmet need for improved systems of care for elderly hospitalized IBD patients, according to Dr. Schwartz, an internal medicine resident at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston.
“Given the high prevalence of IBD patients that require inpatient admission, as well as the rapidly aging nature of the U.S. population, it’s our hope that this study will provide some insight to drive efforts to improve standardized guideline-directed therapy and propose interventions to help close what I think is a very important gap in clinical care,” he said.
It’s well established that a second peak of IBD diagnoses occurs in 50- to 70-year-olds. At present, roughly 30% of all individuals carrying the diagnosis of IBD are over age 65, and with the graying of the baby-boomer population, this proportion is climbing.
Dr. Schwartz presented a study of the National Inpatient Sample for 2016, which is a representative sample comprising 20% of all U.S. hospital discharges for that year, the most recent year for which the data are available. The study population included all 71,040 patients hospitalized for acute management of Crohn’s disease or its immediate complications, of whom 10,095 were aged over age 75 years, as well as the 35,950 patients hospitalized for ulcerative colitis, 8,285 of whom were over 75.
Inpatient mortality occurred in 1.5% of the geriatric admissions, compared with 0.2% of nongeriatric admissions for Crohn’s disease. Similarly, the inpatient mortality rate in geriatric patients with ulcerative colitis was 1.0% versus 0.1% in patients under age 75 hospitalized for ulcerative colitis.
There are lots of reasons why the management of geriatric patients with IBD is particularly challenging, Dr. Schwartz noted. They have a higher burden of comorbid conditions, worse nutritional status, and increased risks of infection and cancer. In a regression analysis that attempted to control for such confounders using the Elixhauser mortality index, the nongeriatric Crohn’s disease patients were an adjusted 75% less likely to die in the hospital than those who were older. Nongeriatric ulcerative colitis patients were 81% less likely to die than geriatric patients with the disease. In contrast, nongeriatric patients admitted for reasons other than IBD had only an adjusted 50% lower risk of inpatient mortality than those who were older than 75.
Of note, in this analysis adjusted for confounders, there was no difference between geriatric and nongeriatric IBD patients in terms of resource utilization as reflected in average length of stay and hospital charges, Dr. Schwartz continued.
Asked if he could shed light on any specific complications that drove the age-related disparity in inpatient mortality in the IBD population, the physician replied that he and his coinvestigators were thwarted in their effort to do so because the inpatient mortality of 1.0%-1.5% was so low that further breakdown as to causes of death would have been statistically unreliable. It might be possible to do so successfully by combining several years of National Inpatient Sample data. That being said, it’s reasonable to hypothesize that cardiovascular complications are an important contributor, he added.
Dr. Schwartz reported having no financial conflicts regarding his study, conducted free of commercial support.