For adults with eosinophilic esophagitis, maintenance treatment with swallowed topical steroids was associated with significantly higher remission rates when compared with “steroid holidays” in a single-center retrospective observational study presented in the February issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.
At a median follow-up time of 5 years, the rate of complete (including clinical, endoscopic, and histologic) remission was 16.1% when patients were receiving swallowed topical steroids but only 1.3% when they were not on these or other maintenance therapies (that is, on “drug holidays”), reported Thomas Greuter, MD, of University Hospital Zürich and the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., and his associates. Swallowed topical steroids also were associated with significantly higher rates of each individual endpoint (P less than .001). Swallowed topical steroid therapy did not appear to cause dysplasia or mucosal atrophy, although esophageal candidiasis was confirmed in 2.7% of visits when patients were on treatment. “Given the good safety profile of low-dose swallowed topical steroid therapy, we advocate for prolonged treatment. Dose-finding trials are needed to achieve higher remission rates,” the investigators wrote in.
Several studies have confirmed the efficacy of short-term swallowed topical steroids for treating eosinophilic esophagitis, but only one small randomized trial has evaluated longer-term treatment, and participants were followed for only 1 year. Dr. Greuter and his associates therefore analyzed retrospective data from 229 adults in Switzerland who received swallowed topical steroids for eosinophilic esophagitis between 2000 and 2014. Induction therapy consisted of 1 mg swallowed topical steroids twice daily, allowing 2-4 weeks for a clinical response. Patients then received infinite maintenance therapy with 0.25 mg swallowed topical steroids twice daily. Patients tended to be male and diagnosed in their late 30s. Endoscopy commonly showed corrugated rings, white exudates, edema, and furrows, and 35% of patients had strictures. Peak eosinophil count typically was 25 cells per high-power frame.
Among 819 follow-up visits, 336 (41%) occurred when patients were on maintenance swallowed topical steroid therapy. The median duration of maintenance therapy prior to a follow-up visit was 347 days (interquartile range, 90-750 days) or 677 doses (IQR, 280-1413 doses). The rate of clinical remission was 31% when patients were on maintenance treatment but only 4.5% when they were not (P less than .001). Respective rates of endoscopic and histologic remission were 48.8% versus 17.8% (P less than .001) and 44.8% versus 10.1% (P less than .001). After accounting for numerous demographic and clinical variables, the only significant predictors of clinical remission were treatment with swallowed topical steroids (odds ratio, 16.98; 95% confidence interval, 6.69-43.09) and a negative family history of esophageal eosinophilia (OR, 4.02; 95% CI, 1.41-11.47).
This study excluded patients whose eosinophilic esophagitis had responded to proton pump inhibitor therapy. Also, the maintenance dose of swallowed topical steroid dose (0.25 mg twice daily) probably was too low to achieve efficacious drug levels in the esophageal mucosa, which could explain the high proportion of treatment-refractory cases, according to the researchers. Evaluating a higher maintenance dose “would be of particular interest in the future,” they added.
The Swiss National Science Foundation provided partial funding. Dr. Greuter disclosed a travel grant from Falk Pharma GmbH and Vifor and an unrestricted research grant from Novartis.
SOURCE: Greuter T et al. .