Combination chemotherapy with bendamustine, gemcitabine, and vinorelbine can induce high complete response rates among patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who are candidates for autologous stem cell transplantation, final results of a phase II study show.
Among 59 patients enrolled in the multicenter study, 49 (83%) had responses, including 43 (73%) who achieved a complete response (CR), and 6 (10%) who had a partial response after 4 cycles of chemotherapy with bendamustine (Treanda), gemcitabine (Gemzar), and vinorelbine (BeGEV).
Of the 49 patients with responses, 43 went on to autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), reported Armando Santoro, MD, from the Humanitas Cancer Center in Rozzano, Italy.
“These findings provide a strong rationale for further development of the BeGEV regimen,” the investigators wrote in a study published online in the Journal of Clinical Oncology (2016 Jul 5. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2016.66.4466).
The investigators had previously shown that a regimen of ifosfamide, gemcitabine, and vinorelbine (IEGV) as salvage chemotherapy prior to ASCT was associated with an 81% overall response rate (ORR) 54% CR rate.
Because bendamustine has shown good activity as monotherapy against relapsed/refractory HL, they conducted a phase II study with an IEGV-like regimen in which bendamustine would be substituted for ifosfamide, to determine whether the substitution could improve response rates.
They enrolled 59 consecutive patients aged 18 years and older with HL that had relapsed or was refractory to one previous line of chemotherapy. Patients were treated with gemcitabine 800 mg/m2 on days 1 and 4, vinorelbine 20 mg/m2 on day 1, and bendamustine 90 mg/m2 on days 2 and 3. Patients also received prednisolone 100 mg/day for days 1 to 4. The patients were treated for four 21-day cycles.
Patients who achieved either a complete or partial response after completion of the four planned cycles then underwent myeloablative therapy with carmustine or fotemustine plus etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan, followed by reinfusion of mobilized CD34-positive circulating stem cells.
Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities included thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, which occurred in eight patients each. Fifty-five of 57 total evaluable patients had successful mobilization and harvesting of CD34-positive cells, and, as noted before, 43 went on to ASCT.
After a median follow-up of 29 months, the 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate for the total population was 62%, and the overall survival rates was nearly 78%. For patients who went on to ASCT, the 2-year PFS rate was 81%, and the 2-year survival rate was 89%.
The authors noted that BeGV was associated with higher CR rates than IEGV, and with “excellent” stem cell mobilization activity and engraftment. Additionally, BeGV has a favorable toxicity profile, because of the absence of ifosfamide which is known to significantly increase risk for hemorrhagic cystitis.
“Because the number of novel agents that may be added in the pretransplantation therapy setting is growing, direct comparisons of combinations incorporating novel agents with BeGEV and other regimens will be necessary to identify the best salvage strategy for relapsed and refractory HL,” the authors wrote.
The study was supported in part by a grant from Mundipharma Pharmaceuticals. Two coauthors disclosed consulting/advisory roles and travel accommodations and expenses from the company.