Objective To evaluate the impact of aprepitant on emesis control, DI, and RFS.
Methods HNC patients treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate RFS in aprepitant users. To control for selection bias, a propensity score analysis was conducted.
Results A total of 192 HNC patients were included: 141 received aprepitant prophylaxis. The aprepitant-treated and untreated groups were comparable in mean age (56.3 vs 58.1 years), male gender (82.3% vs 86.3%), tumor location, and number of metastatic sites. However, more patients in the aprepitant group than in the untreated group had surgically resectable disease (31.2% vs 15.7%, respectively) and better performance status (ECOG 0/1, 87.9% vs 76.4%). Less emesis was reported in the aprepitant group (21.3% vs 28.0%). Patients in the treated group were also more likely to complete 3 cycles of high-dose cisplatin (OR, 2.3; P = .03). The propensity score adjusted Cox regression analysis suggested a reduced risk of disease recurrence in patients who received aprepitant (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.17- 1.28).
Limitations Potential confounders such as other diseases or treatments that may have influenced the presence of nausea/emesis symptoms.
Conclusion Aprepitant contributed to improved emesis control, enhanced DI, and better adherence to cisplatin chemotherapy.
Funding/sponsorship The British Columbia Cancer Foundation and Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute.
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