Younger age of onset and the use of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (ASCT) treatment were key factors improving the length of survival of newly diagnosed, active multiple myeloma (MM) patients, according to the results of a retrospective analysis.
In addition, multivariable analysis showed that a higher level of blood creatinine, the presence of extramedullary disease, a lower level of partial remission, and the use of nonautologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were independent risk factors for shorter survival, according to Virginia Bove, MD, of the Asociación Espanola Primera en Socorros Mutuos, Montevideo, Uruguay and colleagues.
Dr. Bove and colleagues retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, response to treatment, and survival of 282 patients from multiple institutions who had active newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma. They compared the results between patients age 65 years or younger (53.2%) with those older than 65 years and assessed clinical risk factors, asin Hematology, Transfusion, and Cell Therapy.
The main cause of death in all patients was MM progression and the early mortality rate was not different between the younger and older patients. The main cause of early death in older patients was infection, according to the researchers.
Multiple risk factors
“Although MM patients younger than 66 years of age have an aggressive presentation with an advanced stage, high rate of renal failure and extramedullary disease, this did not translate into an inferior [overall survival] and [progression-free survival],” the researchers reported.
The overall response rate was similar between groups (80.6% vs. 81.4%; P = .866), and the overall survival was significantly longer in young patients (median, 65 months vs. 41 months; P = .001) and higher in those who received autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Multivariate analysis was performed on data from the younger patients. The results showed that a creatinine level of less than or equal to 2 mg/dL (P = .048), extramedullary disease (P = .001), a lower VGPR (P = .003) and the use of nonautologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (P = .048) were all independent risk factors for shorter survival.
“Older age is an independent adverse prognostic factor. Adequate risk identification, frontline treatment based on novel drugs and ASCT are the best strategies to improve outcomes, both in young and old patients,” the researchers concluded.
The authors reported that they had no conflicts of interest.
SOURCE: Bove V et al. Hematol Transfus Cell Ther. 2020 Aug 20. doi: 10.1016/j.htct.2020.06.014.