ORLANDO – A large, retrospective study suggests several factors are associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.
Data on more than 300,000 immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) hospitalizations indicated that older age, male sex, not having private insurance, having a gastrointestinal or “other” bleed, and receiving treatment at a hospital in the western United States, a medium- or large-sized hospital, or an urban teaching hospital were all associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH).
Mayank Sharma, of the University of Miami, detailed these findings at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology.
Mr. Sharma and colleagues analyzed data from the National Inpatient Sample database from 2007 to 2016. Of the 348,906 ITP hospitalizations included, there were 3,408 (0.98%) cases of ICH.
The overall incidence of ICH was low and remained stable over time, “which is reassuring,” Mr. Sharma said. However, the mortality rate was higher among patients with ICH than among those without it – 26.7% and 3.2%, respectively.
A multivariate analysis showed that female patients had a decreased likelihood of ICH, with an odds ratio of 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.97). Patients with private insurance had a decreased likelihood of ICH as well, with an OR of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.61-1.08).
Conversely, older patients had an increased likelihood of ICH. The OR was 2.23 (95% CI, 1.51-3.31) for patients aged 25-64 years, and the OR was 3.69 (95% CI, 2.34-5.84) for patients aged 65 years and older.
Patients with a gastrointestinal bleed or an other bleed (not including hematuria or epistaxis) had an increased likelihood of ICH. The ORs were 1.60 (95% CI, 1.18-2.16) and 1.69 (95% CI, 1.19-2.42), respectively.
Patients hospitalized in the western United States (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.26-2.08), at a medium-sized hospital (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.08-2.47), at a large hospital (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.65-3.55), or at an urban teaching hospital (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.80-4.13) all had an increased likelihood of ICH.
“Our second objective was to study the factors associated with mortality in ITP patients with ICH,” Mr. Sharma said. “We found female gender and Medicaid, private, or self-pay as primary payers to be associated with a lower mortality in ITP with ICH.
“[A]ge of 25-64 and 65 years and above, coexistence of a GI bleed or other bleed, and admission to a large or urban teaching hospital were associated with a higher mortality,” he added.
Mr. Sharma said the study’s strengths are that it is the most recent study on trends in ITP/ICH hospitalizations, and that it’s a longitudinal assessment of data from a nationally representative database.
The study’s limitations include its retrospective nature and the use of ICD codes, which could lead to inaccuracies. Data on prior therapies and long-term outcomes were not available, and the researchers were unable to differentiate between acute and chronic ITP.
Mr. Sharma said he had no relevant conflicts of interest.
SOURCE: Sharma M et al. ASH 2019,