MELBOURNE – A once-daily subcutaneous treatment that inhibits the tissue factor 4 pathway inhibitor has shown significant reductions in bleeding rates in patients with hemophilia A and B, according to findings presented at the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis congress.
, of the Centre for Thrombosis and Haemostasis at Lund University in Sweden, presented data from two phase 2, dose-escalation trials of the monoclonal antibody concizumab.
Thetrial involved 36 adults with severe hemophilia A without inhibitors who were started on 0.15 mg/kg of concizumab for 24 weeks. If they experienced three or more bleeds during that time, they were escalated to 0.20 mg/kg, and then to 0.25mg/kg if they experienced an additional three bleeds. The initial 24-week treatment period was then extended by more than 52 weeks.
In thetrial, 16 adults with hemophilia A and 10 adults with hemophilia B – all with inhibitors – were initially randomized 2:1 to either 24 weeks of 0.15mg/kg of concizumab, including a loading dose, or placebo, with similar dose escalation in response to breakthrough bleeds. After 24 weeks, the study continued with a 52-week extension, during which all patients were treated with concizumab.
Both studies saw reductions in bleeding rates associated with concizumab treatment.
In patients with hemophilia A and B with inhibitors, the mean annualized bleeding rate for all bleeds declined from 20.4 to 4.5 bleeds, spontaneous bleeds declined from 18.5 to 2.5, and joint bleeds declined from 15 to 3.2. All three of the reductions were statistically significant.
Almost all patients achieved a concizumab concentration of 100 ng/mL, which was the expected level based on data from the phase 1 trial. Some patients showed anticoncizumab antibodies, but these were transient and did not appear to have any effect on clinical outcomes, according to Dr. Astermark.
Most patients also reached a normal level of thrombin generation, although Dr. Astermark noted that there were some patients with hemophilia B with inhibitors who produced a lower amount of thrombin than normal.
Despite the increase in thrombin generation, there were no thromboembolic events, and no significant safety concerns emerged during the study, he reported.
“Importantly and interestingly, all patients completing the main phase went into the extension phase of this trial, indicating that it was something they think was a contribution to their treatment,” Dr. Astermark said.
Earlier in 2019, concizumab was granted breakthrough designation by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with hemophilia B and inhibitors, allowing it to receive an accelerated review by the agency.
“What the FDA based their decision on was the B patients with inhibitors, because this is truly a group where we do not have so many options,” Dr. Astermark said in an interview. He also noted that the subcutaneous treatment, delivered via a pen-like device, was much more convenient for patients who, until now, had required repeated intravenous infusions.
Two phase 3 trials are now scheduled, in which patients will receive a higher loading dose than what was used in the phase 2 trials.
Novo Nordisk sponsored both studies. Dr. Astermark reported consultancies and research funding unrelated to the study.
SOURCE: Astermark J et al. 2019 ISTH Congress, .