Genome sequencing technologies are providing a valuable new window into the development and progression of pediatric cancers, according to the authors of a review.
In contrast to adult cancers, which are frequently driven by oncogenic mutations, many pediatric cancers have a low burden of somatic mutations, wrote E. Alejandro Sweet-Cordero, MD, from the University of California, San Francisco, and Jaclyn A. Biegel, MD, from the University of Southern California in. Instead, large-scale sequencing studies have found that childhood cancers have a much higher likelihood of being caused by germline mutations in genes that predispose development of cancer.
“Particularly surprising was the observation that even high-risk, highly aggressive cancers in many cases had no identifiable driver gene or pathway,” the authors wrote.
Some pediatric cancers do have identified driver genes, but even these are often different to those seen in adult cancers. The authors gave the example of one study of 1,699 patients and six types of cancer: This study identified 142 likely oncogenes, but only 45% of these matched those seen in the adult cancers.
Many pediatric cancers also have unique genetic features, such as the age-dependent gene fusion events, in which two genes join to form an oncogenic hybrid, and focal areas of gene deletion, which are often seen in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia but less so in adult forms of this cancer.
“In some instances, the fusion events involve genes that are known to be cancer drivers; this raises the intriguing possibility that some pediatric cancers are driven by ‘private’ oncogenic fusions,” the authors wrote, pointing out that this has daunting implications for the development of precision medicine. However they also noted that the presence of common gene fusion events could hold significance for choice of therapies; for example, central nervous system gliomas with the common BRAF V600E mutation may respond to specific BRAF inhibitors.
The authors drew particular attention to the role that genomic analysis could play in studying cancer during treatment and relapse, but they said few studies have explored this in pediatric patients.
“Such studies are critical given what we have learned from adult cancers, which show a capacity to evolve rapidly and acquire new driver mutations,” they wrote. One study found that only one-third of tumors with a potentially targetable genetic mutation had retained that target when analyzed at a later time.
On the issue of targeted therapy, the authors noted that no prospective study has yet looked at the use of sequencing approaches to define new therapies for pediatric cancer. However, they did refer to the Pediatric MATCH clinical trial, which is currently evaluating targeted therapies for relapsed solid tumors in children.
They also identified a need for research on predictors of treatment response in pediatric cancer.
“As the genetic variants that are associated with drug response are, by nature and design, variants present in the normal population, they are typically not included in DNA sequencing panels and are filtered out in WES [whole-exome sequencing] or WGS [whole-genome sequencing] bioinformatics pipelines,” they wrote.
They addressed the question of when to do germline testing in pediatric cancer, saying that, for most pediatric cancer patients, germline testing was indicated by the presence of a pathogenic genetic alternative affecting a gene known to be associated with a predisposition for germline cancer.
The authors suggested that data sharing was important to advancing genomic analysis in pediatric cancers because most of the studies so far had been relatively small. However, they highlighted emerging resources for large-scale analysis of pediatric cancer data, such as public portals for investigating discovery genomic data sets and data repositories of clinical-grade sequencing data.
The review was funded by the National Cancer Institute. No conflicts of interest were declared.
SOURCE: Sweet-Cordero A et al. .