Lawsuits against physicians declined across virtually all specialties by more than a quarter over a 10-year span, but the cost to manage legal challenges went up, a recent analysis finds.
From 2007 to 2016, the rate of claims dropped by 27% per 100 doctors from 5.1 to 3.7, according to a review of 124,000 cases by CRICO Strategies, a division of CRICO, the medical liability insurance provider for the Harvard medical community. CRICO’s database of claims contains about 30% of legal cases filed against health providers across the U.S.
For internists, the rate of lawsuits decreased by 35% between 2007 and 2016, according to CRICO data provided to MDedge News. Ob.gyns. saw a 44% drop in claims over the 10-year period, and surgeons experienced a 23% rate decrease. The analysis did not break down the rate of claims by other single subspecialists. Claims decreased by a combined 29% for cardiologists, dermatologists, endocrinologists, family physicians, gastroenterologists, hematologists/oncologists, hospitalists, infectious disease specialists, internists, nephrologists, neurologists, pulmonologists, and rheumatologists/immunologists, according to the report published in February 2019 on CRICO’s website.
The findings are consistent with prior research on claim trends, said Seth Seabury, PhD, a medical liability researcher and director of the Keck-Schaeffer Initiative for Population Health Policy at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
“Malpractice claim frequency has been falling pretty steadily for a while now, reflecting a number of factors including the widespread adoption of tort reform and other measures to shield physicians from malpractice risk,” Dr. Seabury said in an interview. “Interestingly, the decline seems greatest in the claims with lower potential stakes, as you see average indemnity holding flat or rising. Some of this likely reflects the unwillingness of attorneys to take cases with lower potential payouts, because of the high cost of litigating a malpractice case.”
While frequency went down, the cost to manage a legal claim went up, according to CRICO data. The price of defending a malpractice lawsuit rose an average of 3.5% annually over the 10-year period from $36,000 to $46,000. For cases that ended with no payment (indemnity) to plaintiffs, the cost to manage a case rose an average of 5% annually.
Dr. Michelle Mello
The upward trends in case management expenses are striking, particularly since the time to resolve cases has decreased, said Michelle Mello, PhD, a health research and policy professor at Stanford (Calif.) University. From 2007 to 2016, the average time to resolve a case dropped from 29 to 27 months, the CRICO report found.
“CRICO nods to disclosure and apology approaches as perhaps underlying the more encouraging trend in time to resolution, but it was surprising to me that such approaches have not translated into lower defense costs,” Dr. Mello said in an interview. “In particular, a lot is still being spent to manage cases that never result in a payment to the patient. My hope was that, as hospitals got better at communicating with patients about adverse events, including the fact that about three-quarters of them are not due to substandard care, there would be fewer claims involving such events and also less money spent dealing with such claims when they do arise.”
For cases that do end in payment, high payouts are on the rise. Cases that ended in payments of $1 million or more increased 4% over the 10-year time frame, while payments of $3 million to $11 million increased 7% annually, according to the CRICO report. Cases that ended in payment lower than $1 million dropped over the 10-year span.
The reasons behind increasing plaintiff payouts is uncertain, Dr. Seabury said.
“It’s hard to say exactly why high payouts are on the rise, as payout levels reflect a number of factors – [such as] economic damages, clinical severity, pain and suffering – that can be difficult to disentangle,” he said. “But it is probably concerning for doctors in the sense that, while claims are becoming less likely, when they do happen, it could be more catastrophic in the sense of having large damages that exceed the policy limit.”