NEW YORK—Fostamatinib, a potent, specific inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), shows promise as a targeted therapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and leukemia.
The B-cell receptor is present on both normal B cells and malignant B cells. Signaling through this receptor is necessary for B-cell maturation and survival. A subset of aggressive lymphomas, as well as follicular lymphomas, appear to rely on signaling from this receptor for survival, said Jonathan Friedberg, MD, of the University of Rochester in New York, at the Chemotherapy Foundation Symposium held November 10-13, 2009.
Syk mediates and amplifies the B-cell receptor signal and initiates downstream events. Inhibition of Syk results in lymphoma cell death in vitro, he said.
“Syk is expressed in aggressive B-cell lines. Altered B-cell receptor signaling distinguishes follicular lymphoma cells from non-malignant B cells,” said Dr Friedberg. “Syk activity is increased in follicular lymphoma cells compared to normal cells.”
Fostamatinib is an orally available drug that has been shown to be safe in healthy human volunteers and is active in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). A study of 19 ITP patients found the drug was well tolerated and yielded a 75% response rate.
Dr Friedberg presented the results of the first phase 1/2 trial of fostamatinib in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory NHL. The phase 1 study evaluated 200 mg and 250 mg twice-daily doses of fostamatinib in 13 patients, median age 74 years. The dose-limiting toxicities were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and diarrhea. The 200 mg twice-daily dose was chosen for phase 2 testing.
The phase 2 study enrolled 68 patients with relapsed/refractory disease, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (23 patients), follicular lymphoma (21 patients), and other NHLs (24 patients). The other NHLs mainly included patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL).
The drug was well tolerated, he said. Adverse events were mainly grade 1 or 2. The most common toxicities included diarrhea, fatigue, cytopenias, nausea, and hypertension. He noted that 20% of patients developed hypertension, which was easily controlled. Five patients developed febrile neutropenia and 1 patient had pancytopenia.
Response rates were 21% for DLBCL patients, 10% for follicular lymphoma patients, 55% for CLL/SLL. Stable disease was observed in an additional 22 patients. Median progression-free survival was 4.2 months and response duration exceeded 4 months.
“Some patients had bulky lymphadenopathy that resolved completely with this agent,” said Dr Friedberg. “As the lymphocyte count increased, the lymph nodes melted away.” White blood cell counts normalized in almost all CLL patients, he noted.
The future development of the drug is likely to include rational combinations with other agents. Ongoing laboratory studies are evaluating fostamatinib with mTOR inhibitors, rituximab, proteasome inhibitors, and chemotherapeutic agents.
“Additional clinical trials are planned to identify lymphomas dependent upon the BCR pathway, and to confirm the exciting effects of this truly targeted therapy for B-cell lymphomas and leukemia,” he said.