Case Reports

Aleukemic acute lymphoblastic leukemia with unusual clinical features


 

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a neoplastic proliferation of lymphoblasts in the bone marrow. Normal hematopoiesis is affected, and symptoms from anemia (fatigue, breathlessness), leukopenia (recurrent infections) or thrombocytopenia (easy bruising, mucosal bleeding) are typically described in ALL. Hepatosplenomegaly and B-symptoms (fever, weight loss, and night sweats) are frequently seen. Presence of lymphoblasts in the peripheral smear is indicative of ALL, and a bone marrow biopsy finding of >25% lymphoblasts is confirmatory. Absence of peripheral lymphoblasts in a patient with acute leukemia is known as aleukemic leukemia. Aleukemic leukemia is uncommon, and most cases have described skin lesions from lymphoblast infiltration (leukemia cutis) in addition to bone marrow involvement.1 We report a case of aleukemic ALL in an adult presenting with unusual clinical features including bone pain, osteolytic lesions, hypercalcemia, and normal blood counts. To our knowledge, this is fifth such case ever reported in an adult patient.

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