For patients who remain focused on somatic complaints and resist adopting coping skills or treatment, pushing certain recommendations can actually increase resistance to proper treatment.22 Instead, explore their ambivalence, offer facts, express concern about the current course of the illness, and emphasize the need to revisit the discussion at a future appointment. Offer follow-up monitoring to assess the course of the illness and readiness for GAD treatment.
Initiate treatment in a stepwise manner13 for the patient who is ready for GAD treatment. This approach includes education and monitoring; low-intensity interventions (eg, treatment workbooks or group sessions); medication and/or referral for psychotherapy; referral for outpatient psychiatric care; and hospitalization for patients who pose a danger to self or others.13 Studies suggest that patients receiving both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy benefit from the complementary targeting of symptoms, exhibit increased adherence, and report fewer adverse effects.23
Patients are most likely to benefit from therapy when they have the capacity for introspection and forming friendships (ie, can form a therapeutic alliance). With such patients who have mild or moderate symptoms of GAD, offer cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or applied relaxation training. Consider a trial of medication when symptoms are severe, when psychotherapy is not a good option, or when response to psychotherapy is inadequate.13 Medications work by targeting primitive parts of the brain such as the amygdala (bottom up), while psychotherapy targets the cortex or more evolved part of the brain, teaching it to modulate the lower or more primitive structures (top down).24
Medication considerations. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered first-line pharmacotherapy for adult and adolescent patients with GAD.20 However, in adolescents, no SSRIs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat anxiety disorders unassociated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Use caution if prescribing an SSRI for off-label treatment in an adolescent; talk with the patient and family about the FDA’s black-box warning regarding the potential for suicidality in adolescents.
For adults, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are also considered a first-line treatment option.23 SSRIs and SNRIs are well-studied, effective, safe, and better tolerated than earlier antidepressants. However, be aware that both SSRIs and SNRIs are often associated with headache, nausea, and sexual dysfunction. They are dosed once daily and have not been shown to cause dependence. Inform patients that onset of action is often delayed 4 to 8 weeks23 and that there is a risk for anxiety-producing effects early in treatment. To minimize these effects, consider starting treatment at a lower dose and titrate upward more gradually than when treating depression.
Continue to: Continue treatment for 12 months...