Management: Decrease pain, improve function, slow progression
Because there is no cure for OA, the primary goals of treatment are to decrease pain, improve function of the joint, and slow progression of the disease. As a result, a multifaceted treatment approach is usually undertaken that includes weight reduction and exercise therapy and may include pharmacotherapy, depending on the degree of symptoms. FIGURE 2 contains a summary of the stepwise management of knee OA.
Weight management can slow progression of the disease
Obesity is a causative factor in knee OA.12,13 Patients with knee OA who achieve and maintain an appropriate body weight can potentially slow progression of the disease.13,14 One pound of weight loss can lead to a 4-fold reduction in the load exerted on the knee per step.15
Specific methods of weight reduction are beyond the scope of this article; however, one randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving 399 overweight and obese adults with knee OA found that individuals who participated in a dietary intervention or a combined diet and exercise intervention achieved more weight loss than those who undertook exercise alone.16 Additionally, the diet group had greater reductions in knee compression forces compared to the exercise group, and the combined diet and exercise group had less pain and better function than both the diet group and the exercise group.16 This would suggest that both diet and exercise interventions should be employed in the treatment of knee OA, not only for weight management, but also for knee joint health.
What kind of exercise? Evidence exists to support the utilization of various forms of exercise. In general, land-based therapeutic exercise improves knee pain, physical function, and quality of life, but these benefits often last less than 1 year because people often fail to maintain exercise programs for the long term.17
Specific therapies such as yoga, Tai Chi, balance training, and aquatic exercise have shown some minor improvement in symptoms related to knee OA.18-22 Weight-bearing strength training, non–weight-bearing strength training, and aerobic exercise have all been shown to be effective for short-term pain relief in knee OA, with non–weight-bearing strength training being the most effective.23
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