In fact, just as the “universal precautions” approach has been applied to infection control, many have suggested using a similar approach to pain management. Risk screening should never be misunderstood as an attempt to diminish or undermine the patient’s burden of pain. By routinely conducting thorough and respectful inquiries of risk factors for all patients, clinicians can reduce stigma, improve care, and contain overall risk.26,27
Monitoring programs and patient agreements. In addition to risk-screening tools, the CDC recommends using state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) and urine drug testing (UDT) data to confirm the use of prescribed and illicit substances.28 All 50 states have implemented PDMPs.29 Consider incorporating these components into controlled-substance agreements, which ultimately aim to promote safety and trust between patients and providers. Of course, such agreements do not eliminate all risks associated with opioid prescribing, nor do they guarantee the absence of adverse outcomes. However, when used correctly, they can provide safeguards to reduce misuse and abuse. They also have the potential to preserve the patient-provider relationship, as opposed to providers cursorily refusing to prescribe opioids altogether. The term “controlled-substance agreement” is preferable to “pain contract” or “narcotic contract” as the latter 2 terms may feel stigmatizing and threatening.30
Risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS). In an effort to ensure that benefits of opioid analgesics continue to outweigh the risks, the FDA approved the extended-release (ER)/long-acting (LA) opioid analgesics shared system REMS. Under this REMS, a consortium of ER/LA opioid manufacturers is mandated to provide prescriber education in the form of accredited continuing education and patient educational materials, available at https://opioidanalgesicrems.com/RpcUI/home.u.
After reviewing Mr. G’s chart and conducting a history, we learned that his bilateral knee osteoarthritis was atraumatic and likely due to overuse—although possibly affected by major trauma in a motor vehicle accident 5 years earlier. Imaging also revealed multilevel disc degeneration contributing to his radicular back pain, which seemed to be worse on days after working as a caterer. Poor lifting form at work may have contributed to his pain. Nevertheless, he had been consistent with medical follow-up and denied current or past use of illicit substances. Per the numeric rating scale (NRS), he reported 8 out of 10 pain in his knees and 6 out of 10 in his back. In addition to obtaining a PHQ-9 score of 4, we conducted a DIRE assessment and obtained a score of 19 out of a possible 21, indicating that he may be a good candidate for long-term opioid analgesia.
Criteria for prescribing opioids and for guiding treatment goals
Prescribing an opioid requires establishing a medical necessity based on 3 criteria:31
- pain of moderate-to-severe degree
- a physical diagnosis or suspected organic problem
- documented treatment failure of a noncontrolled substance, adjuvant agents, physician-ordered physical therapy, structured exercise program, and interventional techniques.
Continue to: Treatment goals should be established...