Nearly two-thirds of countries worldwide have an insufficient supply of blood for transfusion, according to findings from a recent modeling study including 195 countries and territories.
Low- and middle-income countries are most often affected, reported lead authorof the University of Washington in Seattle and colleagues. Among all countries in Oceania, south Asia, and eastern, central, and western sub-Saharan Africa, not one had enough blood to meet estimated needs, they noted.
Shortages are attributable to a variety of challenges, including resource constraints, insufficient component production, and a high prevalence of infectious diseases, according to investigators. And existing guidelines, which call for 10-20 donations per 1,000 people in the population, may need to be revised, investigators suggested.
“These estimates are important, as they can be used to guide further investments in blood transfusion services, for analysis of current transfusion practices, and to highlight need for alternatives to transfusions such as antifibrinolytics, blood saving devices, and implementation of blood management systems,” the investigators wrote in.
Blood availability was calculated using the 2016 WHO Global Status Report on Blood Safety and Availability, in which 92% of countries participated. Blood needs were calculated using multiple databases, including the (U.S.) National Inpatient Sample datasets from 2000-2014, the State Inpatient Databases from 2003-2007, and the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.
The global blood need was almost 305 million blood product units, while the supply totaled approximately 272 million units. These shortages, however, were not distributed equally across the globe. Out of 195 countries, 119 (61%) had an insufficient supply of blood to meet anticipated demand. Within this group, the shortage equated to about 102 million blood product units.
Denmark had the greatest supply of blood products (red blood cell products, platelets, and plasma), at 14,704 units per 100,000 population, compared with South Sudan, the least prepared to meet transfusion needs, with just 46 blood product units available per 100,000 population. This pattern was echoed across the globe; high-income countries were usually better stocked than those with low or middle income.
To meet demands, some of the most affected countries would need to raise their collection goals from single-digit figures to as high as 40 donations per 1,000 population, the investigators advised.
“Many countries face critical undersupply of transfusions, which will become more pronounced as access to care improves,” the investigators wrote.
The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health. The investigators reported having no other financial disclosures.
SOURCE: Roberts N et al. Lancet Haematol. 2019 Oct 17. .