From the Journals

Studies support cardiovascular risk management in T2DM

 

Key clinical point: Taking steps to manage cardiovascular risk can help improve the long-term outlook for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Major finding: Despite a temporary increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus risk, post–smoking cessation weight gain did not diminish the long-term benefits of reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In patients with type 2 diabetes, the excess risk of adverse outcomes was reduced with each risk factor variable within the recommended target range.

Study details: An analysis of three cohort studies and a separate analysis of 271,174 patients with T2DM from the Swedish National Diabetes Register and 1,355,870 controls.

Disclosures: Dr. Hu and coauthors did not report any disclosures. Dr. Rawshani’s coauthors disclosed relationships with numerous companies including Amgen, Astra Zeneca, and Boehringer Ingelheim.

Source: Hu Y et al. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 16. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1803626. Rawshani A et al. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 16. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1800256.

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Cardiovascular risk control is ‘essential’

“Given the high prevalence of obesity and the related increase in type 2 diabetes, prevention of cardiovascular complications is essential,” Steven A. Schroeder, MD, wrote in an editorial published along with the studies (N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 16. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe1809004).

The findings reported by Hu and colleagues demonstrate that “the cardiovascular and overall mortality benefits of stopping smoking far outweigh the risks of acquiring type 2 diabetes,” he wrote.

The results reported by Rawshani and coauthors “provide clear support for active management of risk factors” because of the fact that patients with risk factor variables within recommended range had little or no excess risk of death or cardiovascular events.

The results of these two studies “provide support for control of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes, as well as reassurance that the benefits of smoking cessation outweigh the risks of obesity-associated diabetes,” he concluded.

Dr. Schroeder is on the faculty of the department of medicine, University of California, San Francisco. He had no financial conflicts of interest to disclose.


 

FROM NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Taking steps to manage cardiovascular risk can help improve long-term outcomes for type 2 diabetes mellitus, according to two new studies published Aug. 16 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

The first study, which examined weight gain after smoking cessation, found that despite a temporary increase in T2DM risk, post-cessation weight gain did not diminish the long-term benefits of reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

The analysis included three cohort studies: the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II), and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), with follow-up questionnaires every 2 years. After exclusions, a total of 162,807 patients were included in the diabetes analysis and 170,723 in the mortality analysis, reported Yang Hu of the department of nutrition at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, and his coauthors (N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 16. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1803626).

In each follow-up cycle, participants who reported being smokers in the previous cycle but “past” smokers in the current cycle were identified. Quitters were defined as either transient quitters (past smokers in the current cycle but current smokers in previous and next cycles), recent quitters (2-6 consecutive years since smoking cessation), and long-term quitters (6 or more consecutive years since cessation). Weight change was observed for the first 6 years after quitting.

Overall, 12,384 cases of T2DM were confirmed. Diabetes risk was higher for recent quitters than for current smokers (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.32); this risk peaked 5-7 years after quitting and then gradually decreased. In analysis of patients with the longest follow-up time, diabetes risk dropped after 30 years of cessation to that of participants who had never smoked, the authors reported.

Compared with current smokers, hazard ratios for T2DM in recent quitters were 1.08 (95% CI, 0.93-1.26) for those without weight gain, 1.15 (95% CI, 0.99-1.33) for those with weight gain of 0.1-5.0 kg, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.16-1.58) for those with weight gain of 5.1-10 kg, and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.36-1.85) in those with weight gain of more than 10 kg.

In the mortality analysis, 23,867 deaths occurred, of which 5,492 were due to cardiovascular disease. Compared with current smokers, hazard ratios for death from cardiovascular disease in recent quitters were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88) in those without weight gain; 0.47 (95% CI, 0.35-0.63) in those with weight gain of 0.1-5 kg; 0.25 (95% CI, 0.15-0.42) in those with weight gain of 5.1-10 kg; 0.33 (95% CI, 0.18-0.60) in those with weight gain of more than 10 kg; and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.46-0.55) for longer term quitters. The corresponding hazard ratios for all-cause deaths in the same weight gain groups were 0.81 (95% CI, 0.73-0.90); 0.52 (95% CI, 0.46-0.59); 0.46 (95% CI, 0.38-0.55); 0.50 (95% CI, 0.40-0.63); and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.54-0.59).

The findings suggest that weight gain after quitting smoking “did not attenuate the apparent benefits of smoking cessation on reducing cardiovascular mortality or extending longevity,” the authors said. “However, preventing excessive weight gain may maximize the health benefits of smoking cessation through reducing the short-term risk of diabetes and further lowering the long-term risk of death.”

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