BOSTON – Though are the bariatric procedures most patients will receive, other surgical approaches to weight loss are occasionally performed. Knowing these various techniques and their likely efficacy and safety can help physicians who care for patients with obesity, whether a patient is considering a less common option, or whether a post-vagal blockade patient shows up on the schedule with long-term issues.
A common theme among many of these procedures is that overall numbers are low, long-term follow-up may be lacking, and research quality is variable, said
One minimally invasive approach targets stomach functions and the appetite and satiety signaling system. In vagal blockade via an electronic implant ( ), an indwelling, removable device produces electronically-induced intermittent blockade of the vagal nerve.
In one randomized controlled trial, excess weight loss in patients receiving this procedure was 24%, significantly more than the 16% seen in the group that received a sham procedure (P = .002); both groups received regular follow-up and counseling, according to the study protocol. Overall, at 1 year, 52% of those in the treatment group had seen at least 20% reduction in excess weight; just 3.7% of vBloc recipients had adverse events, mostly some dyspepsia and pain at the implant site, said Dr. McKenzie, an endocrine surgeon at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.
The vBloc procedure, said Dr. McKenzie, “demonstrated modest weight loss at 2 years, with a reasonable risk profile.”
A variation of the duodenal switch is known as single anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy, or SADI-S. This procedure both resects the greater curve of the stomach to create a gastric sleeve, and uses a single intestinal anastomosis to create a common channel of 200, 250 or 300 cm, bypassing most of the small intestine.
In this procedure, also known as the one-anastomosis duodenal switch (OADS), weight loss occurs both because of intestinal malabsorption and because of the reduced stomach volume.