Dermatology patients experience a high burden of mental health disturbance. Psychiatric disease is seen in an estimated 30% to 60% of our patients.1 It can be secondary to or comorbid with dermatologic disorders, or it can be the primary condition that is driving cutaneous disease. Patients with secondary or comorbid psychiatric disorders often are amenable to referral to a mental health provider or are already participating in some form of mental health treatment; however, patients with primary psychiatric disease who present to dermatology generally do not accept these referrals.2 Therefore, if these patients are to receive care anywhere in the health care system, it often must be in the department of dermatology.
What primary psychiatric conditions do we see in dermatology?
Common primary psychiatric conditions seen in dermatology include delusional infestation, obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders, and dermatitis artefacta.
Also known as delusions of parasitosis or delusional parasitosis, delusional infestation presents as a fixed false belief that there is an organism or other foreign entity that is present in the skin and is the cause of cutaneous disruption. It often is an isolated delusion but can have a notable psychosocial impact. The term delusional infestation is sometimes preferred, as it is inclusive of delusions focused on any type of organism, not just parasites. It also encompasses delusions of infestation with nonliving matter such as fibers, also known as Morgellons disease.3
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Related Disorders
This broad category includes several conditions encountered in dermatology. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), olfactory reference syndrome (ORS), excoriation disorder, and trichotillomania are some of the most common variants. In patients with BDD, skin and hair are the 2 most common preoccupations. It has been estimated that 12% of dermatology patients experience BDD. Unsurprisingly, it is more common in patients presenting to cosmetic dermatology, but general dermatology patients also are affected at a rate of 7%.2 Patients with ORS falsely believe they have body odor and/or halitosis. Excoriation disorder manifests as repetitive skin picking, either of normal skin or of lesions such as pimples and scabs. Trichotillomania presents as repeated hair pulling, and trichophagia (eating the pulled hair) also may be present.
Almost 1 in 4 patients who seek dermatologic evaluation for primarily psychiatric disorders have dermatitis artefacta, the presence of deliberately self-inflicted skin lesions.2 Patients with dermatitis artefacta have unconscious motives for their behavior and should be distinguished from malingering patients who have a conscious goal of secondary gain.
What treatments are available?
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are one of the first-line treatments for BDD and may be useful in ORS. In excoriation disorder and trichotillomania, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the most commonly prescribed pharmacotherapy, but they have limited efficacy.2