Case Reports

Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Successfully Treated With Rituximab

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Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE) is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) characterized by cutaneous vesicles and bullae with a primarily neutrophilic infiltrate on histopathology. Bullous SLE is a heterogeneous disease without pathognomonic clinical features, making the diagnosis and differentiation from other blistering diseases challenging. We present the case of a single patient with SLE in whom 3 different clinical appearances of BSLE manifested over 5 years. The cutaneous eruption dramatically improved with rituximab at the initial presentation and continued to respond to rituximab during subsequent flares over the subsequent 5 years.

Practice Points

  • Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE) can present with a waxing and waning course punctuated by flares.
  • Different clinical presentations can occur over the disease course.
  • Rituximab is a viable treatment option in BSLE.


 

References

Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE) is a rare cutaneous presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).1 Although 59% to 85% of SLE patients develop skin-related symptoms, fewer than 5% of SLE patients develop BSLE.1-3 This acquired autoimmune bullous disease, characterized by subepidermal bullae with a neutrophilic infiltrate on histopathology, is precipitated by autoantibodies to type VII collagen. Bullae can appear on both cutaneous and mucosal surfaces but tend to favor the trunk, upper extremities, neck, face, and vermilion border.3

Our case of an 18-year-old black woman with BSLE was originally reported in 2011.4 We update the case to illustrate the heterogeneous presentation of BSLE in a single patient and to expand on the role of rituximab in this disease.

Case Report

An 18-year-old black woman presented with a vesicular eruption of 3 weeks’ duration that started on the trunk and buttocks and progressed to involve the face, oral mucosa, and posterior auricular area. The vesicular eruption was accompanied by fatigue, arthralgia, and myalgia.

Physical examination revealed multiple tense, fluid-filled vesicles, measuring roughly 2 to 3 mm in diameter, over the cheeks, chin, postauricular area, vermilion border, oral mucosa, and left side of the neck and shoulder. Resolved lesions on the trunk and buttocks were marked by superficial crust and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Scarring was absent.

Laboratory analysis demonstrated hemolytic anemia with a positive direct antiglobulin test, hypocomplementemia, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Antinuclear antibody testing was positive (titer, 1:640).

Biopsies were taken from the left cheek for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and direct immunofluorescence (DIF), which revealed subepidermal clefting, few neutrophils, and notable mucin deposition. Direct immunofluorescence showed a broad deposition of IgG, IgA, and IgM, as well as C3 in a ribbonlike pattern at the dermoepidermal junction.

A diagnosis of SLE with BSLE was made. The patient initially was treated with prednisone, hydroxychloroquine, mycophenolate mofetil, and intravenous immunoglobulin, but the cutaneous disease persisted. The bullous eruption resolved with 2 infusions of rituximab (1000 mg) spaced 2 weeks apart.

The patient was in remission on 5 mg of prednisone for 2 years following the initial course of rituximab. However, she developed a flare of SLE, with fatigue, arthralgia, hypocomplementemia, and recurrence of BSLE with tense bullae on the face and lips. The flare resolved with prednisone and a single infusion of rituximab (1000 mg). She was then maintained on hydroxychloroquine (200 mg/d).

Three years later (5 years after the initial presentation), the patient presented with pruritic erythematous papulovesicles on the bilateral extensor elbows and right knee (Figure 1). The clinical appearance suggested dermatitis herpetiformis (DH).

Figure 1. Five years after the initial presentation, pruritic erythematous papulovesicles developed on the bilateral extensor elbows.

Punch biopsies were obtained from the right elbow for H&E and DIF testing; the H&E-stained specimen showed lichenoid dermatitis with prominent dermal mucin, consistent with cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Direct immunofluorescence showed prominent linear IgG, linear IgA, and granular IgM along the basement membrane, which were identical to DIF findings of the original eruption.

Further laboratory testing revealed hypocomplementemia, anemia of chronic disease (hemoglobin, 8.4 g/dL [reference range, 14.0–17.5 g/dL]), and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Given the clinical appearance of the vesicles, DIF findings, and the corresponding SLE flare, a diagnosis of BSLE was made. Because of the systemic symptoms, skin findings, and laboratory results, azathioprine was started. The cutaneous symptoms were treated and resolved with the addition of triamcinolone ointment 0.1% twice daily.

Six months later, the patient presented to our facility with fatigue, arthralgia, and numerous erythematous papules coalescing into a large plaque on the left upper arm (Figure 2). Biopsy showed interface dermatitis with numerous neutrophils and early vesiculation, consistent with BSLE (Figure 3). She underwent another course of 2 infusions of rituximab (1000 mg) administered 2 weeks apart, with resolution of cutaneous and systemic disease.

Figure 2. Erythematous papules coalescing into a large plaque on the left upper arm.

Figure 3. Biopsy showed interface dermatitis with numerous neutrophils and early vesiculation, consistent with bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (H&E, original magnification ×200).

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